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Pattern of evolution

This presentation file has these contents: Evolution Convergent Evolution Analogous structures Divergent Evolution Homologous structures Parallel Evolution Coevolution Types of Evolution Macroevolution Microevolution Importance of pattern of evolution

Pattern of evolution

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Pattern of evolution
Contents
Patten of Evolution
 Evolution
 Convergent Evolution
 Analogous structures
 Divergent Evolution
 Homologous structures
 Parallel Evolution
 Coevolution
 Types of Evolution
• Macroevolution
• Microevolution
 Importance of pattern of evolution
Evolution
“Evolution, or change over time, is the process by which modern organisms have
descended from ancient organisms. ”
 Evolution also explains how modern organisms have descended from ancient
organisms.
 Evolution is the Process by which organisms pass on traits from generation to
generation.
 Explains the origin of new species and diversity.
Change over time
PATTERN OF EVOLUTION
Convergent Evolution
 In evolutionary biology, convergent evolution is
the process whereby organisms not closely related
, independently evolve similar traits as a result of
having to adapt to similar environments or
ecological niches.
 Animals come from different ancestral lineages
 Caused by environmental changes
 Also called convergence
Examples
i. shark and dolphin bodies,
ii. vertebrate and cephalopod eyes
iii. the relationship between bat and insect
wings,
Analogous Structures
 Convergent evolution creates analogous structures that have similar form or
function but were not present in the last common ancestor of those groups.
 Organisma have the same function but not same the structure.
 Analogous structures arise from convergent evolution.
Divergent Evolution
 “Divergent evolution is defined as what occurs
when two groups of the same
species evolve different traits within those groups in
order to accommodate for differing environmental
and social pressures”.
 Species gradually become different from its
ancestors
 Evolution resulted in multiple different species,
leading to speciation
 Homologous structure development
 Also called adaptive radiation
 Caused by environmental changes, migration

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Pattern of evolution

  • 2. Contents Patten of Evolution  Evolution  Convergent Evolution  Analogous structures  Divergent Evolution  Homologous structures  Parallel Evolution  Coevolution  Types of Evolution • Macroevolution • Microevolution  Importance of pattern of evolution
  • 3. Evolution “Evolution, or change over time, is the process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms. ”  Evolution also explains how modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms.  Evolution is the Process by which organisms pass on traits from generation to generation.  Explains the origin of new species and diversity. Change over time
  • 4. PATTERN OF EVOLUTION Convergent Evolution  In evolutionary biology, convergent evolution is the process whereby organisms not closely related , independently evolve similar traits as a result of having to adapt to similar environments or ecological niches.  Animals come from different ancestral lineages  Caused by environmental changes  Also called convergence Examples i. shark and dolphin bodies, ii. vertebrate and cephalopod eyes iii. the relationship between bat and insect wings,
  • 5. Analogous Structures  Convergent evolution creates analogous structures that have similar form or function but were not present in the last common ancestor of those groups.  Organisma have the same function but not same the structure.  Analogous structures arise from convergent evolution.
  • 6. Divergent Evolution  “Divergent evolution is defined as what occurs when two groups of the same species evolve different traits within those groups in order to accommodate for differing environmental and social pressures”.  Species gradually become different from its ancestors  Evolution resulted in multiple different species, leading to speciation  Homologous structure development  Also called adaptive radiation  Caused by environmental changes, migration
  • 7. Examples of Divergent Evolution • Darwin’s Finches Finches on the Galapagos islands evolved into many different species to eat different foods. • Polar bear and brown bear • Red fox and kit fox
  • 8. Homologous Structue  In divergent evolution, homologous structures are structures indicating a species is diverging from its ancestor.  These structures need not have the same function as that of those of the species' ancestors.  Same structure  Different function  homologous structures arise via Divergent evolution .  Example  the forelimbs of humans and bats are homologous structures.
  • 9. Parallel Evolution  Some species evolve without converging on similar traits or diverging to different traits. These species undergo change, but they maintain a constant level of similarity to each other. This process is known as parallel evolution.  Parallel evolution occurs when two species evolve independently of each other, maintaining the same level of similarity.  Parallel evolution usually occurs between unrelated species that do not occupy the same or similar niches in a given habitat
  • 10. Examples  Marsupials and placental mammals most recently shared common ancestor 125- 150 million years ago.yet these similar features appeared in each of the distant relatives
  • 12. Coevolution  “The Process By Which Two Species Evolve In Response To Changes In Each Other”  Species that live in a close relationship with each other, such as a predator-prey or symbiotic relationship, often evolve adaptations to each other in a process called coevolution. Types of Coevolution i. Parasite –host coevolution ii. Mutualistic/Beneficial coevolution iii. Predatory/prey coevolution
  • 13. Examples of Coevolution  Mutualistic/Beneficial coevolution I. yucca moth (Tegeticula yuccasella)A female yucca moth pushing pollen into the stigma tube of the yucca flower while visiting the flower to deposit her eggs.  Predatory-prey coevolution I. One common example is the relationship between some species of birds and butterflies.
  • 14. Parasite-host coevolution  One organism lives on other organism harming it and possibly causing death.  The parasite live on or in the body of the host  Maize plant (host) and Oospores (parasite)  Cor/ Maize disease
  • 15. Macroevolution  Descent with modification  The process by which modern organism have descended from ancient ancestor due to many small changes over millions years (Long time)  macroevolution describes patterns on the tree of life at a grand scale across vast time periods.  Many different patterns can be observed across the tree of life at a grand scale , including • stability • gradual change • rapid change • adaptive radiations(Divergent evolution) • extinctions • the co-evolution of two or more species • convergent evolution in traits between species
  • 16. Examples of Macroevolution  The origin of eukaryotic life forms  the origin of humans  the origin of eukaryotic cells  extinction of the dinosaurs.
  • 17. Microevolution  Small changes within a species’s set of genes that result in phenotypic differences  Decades or centuries (Short time)  Under certain environmental conditions,can produce new ,closely related species.  Variants in color are a form of microevolution  Microevolution describes mechanisms that alter the frequencies of alleles in gene pools within species  These mechanisms include • mutation • Migration • genetic drift • natural selection
  • 18. Examples of Microevolution • Animals adjusting to camouflage is an example of microevolution.
  • 19. Importance of Pattern of Evolution  Evolution also helps in promoting biodiversity.  It leads to speciation, it could lead to a wide range of different organisms thriving in diverse habitats.  Divergent evolution allows species with common ancestral origin to be able to adapt to their own habitats.
  • 20. THANK you FOR LISTENING