Rural urban migrant poverty (rump) role of infrastructure in poverty eradication

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Poverty knows no boundaries! It is transient

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Rural urban migrant poverty (rump) role of infrastructure in poverty eradication

  1. 1. Rural-urban Migrant Poverty (RUMP) Opportunities for using Infrastructure Development as a poverty alleviation strategy <br />Mthokozisi Sidambe<br />November 2010<br />
  2. 2. PURPOSE OF THE PRESENTATION<br />To examine dynamics of rural-urban migrant poverty (RUMP).<br />Identify implications of RUMP and gaps in development policy and practice.<br />Identify further focus areas - for research, debate and policy consideration. <br />Challenge development practitioners to reconsider/formulate poverty alleviation strategies that address RUMP. <br />
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION<br />Its been observed that, in extreme conditions, the poor “vote with their feet” – they migrate from rural to urban areas and vice-versa.<br />The link between poverty and rural-urban migration (RUM) is not always clearly articulated or embedded into development strategies. <br />Rural-urban dichotomy disguises the realities of rural-urban migrant poverty = development strategies continue to treat the rural & urban as distinct spaces & ignore the continuum of poverty.<br />SA’s internal rural-urban migration (RUM) takes place within a context of intensifying rural development efforts, shrinking urban-based employment opportunities and poor (urban) service delivery. <br />
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION (Cont…)<br />The effect of rural-urban migration on total urban poverty needs thorough examination. Poverty, measured in terms of current income, may not capture current living conditions and the long term poverty of rural migrant households. <br />Issues of rural-urban migration have not been properly treated by/through current development strategies, e.g. urban housing challenges are hardly linked to rural development. On the other hand, lack of a holistic rural development approach continues = rural development biased towards agriculture.<br />Knowledge of rural-urban interface and the extent to which migrant workers currently live under poverty is vital for development and poverty alleviation targeting. <br />
  5. 5. URBAN AND RURAL LINKAGES AND INTERDEPENDENCIES<br />Urban & Rural Linkages & Interdependencies<br />Agric. Trade<br />Transport centre<br />Urban<br />Rural<br />Agric. <br />Production<br />Agric. Support Services<br /><ul><li>Production inputs
  6. 6. Repair services
  7. 7. Information on production
  8. 8. Methods (innovation)</li></ul>Agriculture Intensification<br /><ul><li>Rural infrastructure
  9. 9. Production incentives
  10. 10. Education and capacity to
  11. 11. adopt
  12. 12. And adapt innovation</li></ul>Non-Agric. Consumer Markets<br /><ul><li>Processed agric. Products
  13. 13. Private services
  14. 14. Public services (health, educ & admin)</li></ul>Rural income and demand<br />For non-agriculture goods<br />And services<br />Agro-based industry<br />Cash crop production <br />And agricultural <br />diversification<br />Non- agro-based <br />Employment<br />All of the Above<br />Source: CSIR 2007; www.csir.co.za<br />
  15. 15. POSITIVE RURAL-URBAN INTERFACE<br />Rural Side<br />Access to farming assets (including land)<br />Market for rural produced goods and services<br />Diversification of rural livelihoods (to non-farm activities, e.g. sand abstraction, rural tourism, etc)<br />Remittances <br />Interlinked fortunes<br />Urban side<br /><ul><li>Increase in labour pool and non-farm employment opportunities
  16. 16. Expanded markets
  17. 17. Economies of scale in production and provision of goods and services</li></li></ul><li>NEGATIVE RURAL-URBAN INTERFACE<br />Rural Side<br />Export-oriented farming activities <br />Limited opportunities for non-farm livelihood diversification<br />Decline in small-farm production<br />Environmental externalities (e.g. uncontrolled land abstraction) <br />Urban side<br /><ul><li>Increased influx of migrants from poor rural areas
  18. 18. Increase in “free riders” = overstretching of services
  19. 19. Social and economic vices e.g. crime leading to low investment
  20. 20. Exclusion/marginalisation of poor rural-urban migrants</li></li></ul><li>HSRC’s social need index<br /><ul><li>Population/ health facilities
  21. 21. Road length/ km2
  22. 22. Population density
  23. 23. Electricity and water provision
  24. 24. Dependency ratio
  25. 25. Pupil/ teacher ratio
  26. 26. Unemployment
  27. 27. Poverty gap
  28. 28. Etc.</li></ul>High<br />Med-high<br />Medium<br />Med-low<br />Low<br />POVERTY & SPATIAL MOBILITY; SA <br />Source: CSIR 2007; www.csir.co.za<br />
  29. 29. Income poverty = result of 3G jobs <br />(disgraceful, dirty, and dangerous). <br />RUMP IMPLICATIONS <br />The mobile <br />Poor<br />More risk If young, <br />single & female<br />Asset poverty<br />= Poor housing,<br />Infrastructure &<br />services<br />Social &<br />Economic <br />marginalisation<br />&/or exclusion<br />Social capital <br />dependency <br />
  30. 30. EMERGING CHALLENGES FROM CURRENT DEVELOPMENT PRAXIS<br />Strategies meant to better rural areas usually have the opposite effects, e.g. better education leads to rural out-migration in search of better economic/job opportunities. <br />The effectiveness of current rural and urban development strategies (e.g. ISRDP and URP) in addressing RUMP is doubtful and needs to be addressed.<br />The provision of social infrastructure is only a partial solution<br />Sub-prime LED interventions, e.g. gardening projects, scratch the surface of economic aspirations of the rural poor<br />Rural areas lose the strong, “brightest and most promising” who are relegated to informality in urban areas. <br />The poorest ruralites are the least likely to migrate = resource constraints.<br />The rural-urban continuum of poverty is poorly addressed by policy and in development practice.<br />
  31. 31. VIRTUOUS CYCLE OF REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT & RURAL-URBAN LINKAGES<br />
  32. 32. RURAL REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROCESS: STRUCTURES, FLOWS AND POLICY INTERVENTIONS<br />
  33. 33. FURTHER AREAS FOR CONSIDERATION<br />A number of key issues need further examination, viz:<br />Implications of rural-urban migration and counter-urbanisation on land and agrarian reform.<br />The Gender dimensions of RUMP.<br />Provision of robust social infrastructure to meet rural-urban migration and demographic changes.<br />Social and economic capital value and costs of rural-urban migration.<br />The implications/impact of globalisation on RUM<br />Where is Best/Good Practice in addressing RUMP – Can SA follow and adapt the development path of the North?<br />
  34. 34. Thank you …<br />Mthokozisi Sidambe<br />Email address: mthokozisi.sidambe@gmail.com<br />Acknowledgements: <br />For the sterling contributions and insight from James Chakwizira, with whom I originally did the research on the presented work in 2008. <br />Email address: jameschakwizira@yahoo.com<br />

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