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Separatist Movements in India by SARDAR ZAFAR MAHMUD KHAN


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Separatist Movements in India by SARDAR ZAFAR MAHMUD KHAN

  2. 3. SCHEME OF PRESENTATION <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>An overview of Separatist Movements in India </li></ul><ul><li>Implications of Separatist Movements on Neighbouring Countries </li></ul><ul><li>Is India Imploding from within? </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendations </li></ul>
  3. 4. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Sep movements in different parts pose a threat </li></ul><ul><li>No impact of rapid economic development </li></ul><ul><li>India accuses neighbours for fuelling movements </li></ul><ul><li>But serious internal disturbances & turmoil due to various socio-eco, pol, ethnic & religious reasons </li></ul><ul><li>No attempt to address grievances & issues of people residing in those areas. </li></ul>
  4. 5. SEPARATIST MOVEMENTS IN INDIA <ul><li>TYPES (05) </li></ul><ul><li>Separatist movement in IHK; </li></ul><ul><li>Khalistan movement; </li></ul><ul><li>Separatist movements in NE India; </li></ul><ul><li>Maoist Movement; </li></ul><ul><li>Separatist movements in other parts </li></ul>
  5. 7. SEPARATIST MOVEMENT IN IHK <ul><li>First imp. movement is struggle for self-determination </li></ul><ul><li>Option at the time of independence </li></ul><ul><li> i)- geographical contiguity & ii)- Desire of majority </li></ul><ul><li>Instrument of accession & entry of Indian forces </li></ul><ul><li>Liberation of Azad Kashmir </li></ul><ul><li>Indian rushes UN Security Council </li></ul><ul><li>UN Security Council’s resolution 47 on 21-04-48 </li></ul><ul><li>“ the final disposition of the State of Jammu and Kashmir will be made in accordance with the will of the Kashmiris expressed through the democratic method of a free and impartial plebiscite conducted under the auspices of the United Nations.” </li></ul>
  6. 8. INDIA’S COMMITMENTS ON KASHMIR “ The question of accession is to be decided finally in a free plebiscite; on this there is no dispute.” White Paper on Kashmir issued by Government of India, 1948 “ I wish to draw your attention to broadcast on Kashmir which I made last evening. I have stated our Government’s policy and made it clear that we have no desire to impose our will on Kashmir but to leave final decision to the people of Kashmir.” Indian P.M Nehru’s Telegram to British & Pakistan P.M on November 4, 1947 “ We have declared that the fate of Kashmir is ultimately to be decided by the people. That pledge we have given (and the Maharajah has supported it) not only to the people of Kashmir but to the world. We will not & cannot back out of it.” Indian P.M Nehru’s broadcast to nation from All India Radio on November 2, 1947 “ &quot;In regard to accession also, it has been made clear that this is subject to reference to people of State and their decision&quot;. Indian P.M Nehru’s Telegram to British & Pakistan P.M on October 28, 1947 “ Our view which we have repeatedly made public is that the question of accession in any disputed territory or State must be decided in accordance with the wishes of people, and we adhere to this view&quot;. Indian P.M Nehru’s Telegram to British & Pakistan P.M on October 27, 1947 “ As a great nation, we cannot go back on it. We have left the question for final solution to the people of Kashmir and we are determined to abide by their decision”. Nehru's statement on holding plebiscite in Kashmir (Calcutta on January 2, 1952) STATEMENT / COMMITMENT NAME OF LEADER/GOVT.
  7. 9. UN RESOLUTIONS ON KASHMIR Resolution adopted by the Security Council at its meeting on 20 th September 1965 07 Resolution adopted by the Security Council on 24 th January 1957, concerning the India–Pakistan Question 06 Resolution of the Security Council of March 30, 1951 05 Resolution of the Security Council of March 14, 1950 04 Resolution of the Commission of January 5, 1949 03 Resolution of the Commission of August 13, 1948 02 Resolution of the Security Council of April 21, 1948 01
  8. 10. ATTROCITIES BY INDIAN TROOPS IN 2008 SOURCE : 93   5   1   6   0   23   1   37   3   7 2 5 3 Women gang raped /Molested 164   0   10   5   9   92   12   10   5   7 9 3 2 Children orphaned 85   3   5   3   4   46   6   5   3   3 4 2 1 Women widowed 44   0   0   0   8   4   0   6   3   6 11 3 3 Kidnapped or Missing 106   1   8   10   2   1   6   7   3   23 18 16 11 Arson (Houses, Shops, etc.) 1408   43   102   88   187   278   71   203   64   118 77 87 90 Arrested 4824   193   250   322   560   1527   274   1003   146   139 188 111 111 Tortured / Critically Injured 24   0   1   0   4   0   2   6   2   5 2 1 1 Custodial Killings 25   0   2   3   3   2   7   1   1   2 4 0 0 Kids 12   1   0   0   1   5   2   0   1   1 1 0 0 Women 501   18   32   53   59   86   40   53   28   43 25 37 27 Men 538   19   34   56   63   93   49   54   30   46 30 37 27 Total Killings (Including in Custody) Total Dec Nov Oct Sep Aug Jul Jun May Apr Mar Feb Jan
  9. 11. VIOLENCE IN KASHMIR (JAN 1989- JAN 2010) SOURCE: 9,987 Women gang-raped / Molested 107,400 Children Orphaned 22,749 Women Widowed 105,901 Structures Arsoned /Destroyed 118,989 Civilians Arrested 6,982 Custodial Killings 93,549 Total Killings From January 1989 to January 31, 2010
  10. 15. FREEDOM FIGHTER GROUPS IN KASHMIR Islami Jamaat-e-Tulba 19 Mahaz-e-Azadi 18 Al Umar Mujahideen 17 Al Jehad Force 16 Kashmir Jehad Force 15 Muslim Janbaz Force 14 People's League 13 Jammu & Kashmir National Liberation Army 12 Jamait-ul-Mujahideen 11 Al Jehad 10 Ikhwan -ul- Mujahideen 09 Dukhtaran-e- Millat (D.M) 08 Mutahida Jehad Council 07 Tehrik-ul-Mujahideen 06 Jammu & Kashmir Liberation Front (J.K.L.F) 05 Jaish-e-Mohammad Mujahideen-e-Tanzeem 04 Lashkar-e-Toiba 03 Harkat-ul-Ansar or Harkat -ul- Jihad- e-Islami 02 Hizbul Mujahideen (H.M) 01 Name of Group/Organisation S. No
  12. 18. INDIAN LEADERS’ COMMITMENTS WITH SIKHS “ Adequate safeguards would be provided for minorities in India…It was a declaration, pledge and an undertaking before the world, a contract with millions of Indians and, therefore, in the nature of an oath we must keep .” Resolution in the Constituent Assembly on December 9, 1946. “ The brave Sikhs of Punjab are entitled to special consideration. I see nothing wrong in an area and a set-up in the North wherein the Sikhs can experience the glow of freedom” Nehru’s address to Sikhs at All India Congress Committee meeting in Calcutta in 1946 &quot;I ask you to accept my word…and the resolution of the Congress that it will not betray a single individual, much less a community…our Sikh friends have no reason to fear that it would betray them…… Moreover, Sikhs are a brave people. They know how to safeguard their rights by exercise of arms if it should ever come to that . M.K. Gandhi’s address to a meeting in Delhi STATEMENT NAME OF LEADER
  13. 19. KHALISTAN MOVEMENT <ul><li>PHASE-I (1947-1980) </li></ul><ul><li>Language Issue </li></ul><ul><li>Demand for a Punjabi “SUBA” </li></ul><ul><li>Diversion of Punjab rivers water in violation of Indian Constitution to Non-riparian states </li></ul><ul><li>PHASE-II (1980-1988) </li></ul><ul><li>Attack on Golden temple & killing of Thousands of Sikhs including Bhindranwale in BLUE-STAR Operation were main causes of Sikh Community’s demand for a separate homeland during this phase. </li></ul>
  14. 20. KHALISTAN MOVEMENT <ul><li>PHASE-III (1989-To DATE) </li></ul><ul><li>Indian officials propagate that idea of Khalistan </li></ul><ul><li>State for Sikh Community has become old story. </li></ul><ul><li>But Khalistan Council comprising Sikh Organ. </li></ul><ul><li>has recently reasserted their demand for a sep. </li></ul><ul><li>Sikh State & vowed that problem was not over. </li></ul><ul><li>Khalistan was idea of first Guru of Sikhs </li></ul><ul><li>Still popular in rural areas </li></ul>
  16. 23. SEP. MOVEMENTS IN NORTH-EAST INDIA <ul><li>CAUSES </li></ul><ul><li>Region is ethnically, linguistically & culturally distinct from the rest of India </li></ul><ul><li>Isolation of region from the rest of India. “Siliguri Corridor” </li></ul><ul><li>Territorial disputes among states and tensions between natives and immigrants from other states </li></ul><ul><li>Apathy of Indian govt. - Illiteracy, poverty and lack of economic opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Presence of Separatist groups in the region with conflicting interests </li></ul>
  17. 24. <ul><li>Historical reasons- Not involved in Indian Struggle – So no loyalty with India </li></ul><ul><li>Deployment of Indian army under AFSPA to manage Internal Conflicts escalated the separate tendencies in the region. </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling amongst the people of the area that their natural & mineral resources are being utilised by other states </li></ul><ul><li>Presence of 4,500 km international border between India and its neighbours </li></ul>
  18. 25. MAOIST THREAT <ul><li>Another popular movement which has massive support for its program and ideology. </li></ul><ul><li>The Maoists have appealed to the senses of the have-nots, poor & dispossessed people, & they have either joined this popular movement or have sympathies with them. </li></ul><ul><li>This movement led by Mupala Luxman Rao, was triggered in May 1969 in the form of peasant uprising in West Bengal against big Hindu landlords & is gaining momentum in following areas with the passage of time:- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>West Bengal, Bihar, Western Orissa, Jharkhand , Chhattisgarh , Madhya Pradesh, Eastern Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and several other regions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Kerala </li></ul></ul>
  19. 26. SEP. MOVEMENTS IN OTHER PARTS <ul><li>ARUNACHAL PRADESH </li></ul><ul><li>PROPOSED REGION : Teola country </li></ul><ul><li>GARO PROPOSED REGION : ACHIKLAND </li></ul><ul><li>GONDWANA </li></ul><ul><li>GONDI STATE (from parts of Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, & Maharashtra) </li></ul><ul><li>KAMTAPUR </li></ul><ul><li>PROPOSED REGION : KAMTAPUR </li></ul><ul><li>KARBI PROPOSED REGION : KARBI-ANGLONG </li></ul><ul><li>KARNATAKA PROPOSED REGION : TULU STATE (from parts of Karnataka) </li></ul><ul><li>TAMIL NADU </li></ul><ul><li> PROPOSED REGION: TAMIL NADU </li></ul><ul><li>TELANGANA PROPOSED REGION : TELANGANA (from Andhra Pradesh state) </li></ul><ul><li>VIDARBHA </li></ul><ul><li>PROPOSED REGION : VIDARBHA ( from Maharashtra) </li></ul>
  21. 28. NE MOVEMENTS & INDO-BAGLADESH RELATIONS <ul><li>India blames Bangladesh for flaming sep insurgencies in NE with the help of B.D Islamist groups & collaboration of ISI </li></ul><ul><li>CAUSES OF STRAINED RELATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>RAW’s continuous interference in internal affairs of B.D. </li></ul><ul><li>India’s concern over presence of trg. camps in B.D & supply of arms & ammunitions to sep groups in bordering areas </li></ul><ul><li>Illegal immigrants & their involvement in these insurgencies. </li></ul><ul><li>India’s patronizing attitude towards B.D </li></ul>
  22. 29. IMPACT OF MOVEMENTS ON INDO-SINO RELATIONS <ul><li>Indian accuses China of continually backing Maoist guerrilla warfare. </li></ul><ul><li>India- secret camps in China to train Maoists </li></ul><ul><li>Another irritant is China’s territorial claim on Arunchal Pradesh (A.P). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>China does not recognize A.P nor McMahon line. Chinese territory occupied by India </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>India regards it as an integral part of country </li></ul></ul>
  23. 30. CONSEQUENCES OF MOVEMENTS & INDO-MYANMAR RELATIONS <ul><li>Four NE states – A.P, Nagaland, Manipur & Mizoram - share a 1640 k.m long border with Myanmar. </li></ul><ul><li>Indian officials- training camps in Myanmar (Burma ) </li></ul><ul><li>MAOISTS & INDO-NEPAL RELATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Close relations between Nepali Maoists (Ex-rebels) & Indian Maoists </li></ul><ul><li>Territorial claims </li></ul><ul><li>India claims Nawalparasi district of Nepal </li></ul><ul><li>Nepal claims Kalapani district of India </li></ul>
  24. 31. SEP. MOVEMENTS & INDO-PAK RELATIONS <ul><li>Many issues worsening relations but root cause of conflicts & hatred is Kashmir issue </li></ul><ul><li>Over past 60 years, UN resolutions, observers, & intellectuals proposed various options:- </li></ul><ul><li>1)- UN Resolutions: The Plebiscite Option; </li></ul><ul><li>2)- The UN Trusteeship Option; </li></ul><ul><li>3)- The Partition Option; </li></ul><ul><li>a) - Regional plebiscite (Sir Owen Dixon’s proposals); </li></ul><ul><li>b) - Conversion of LOC in to International Border; </li></ul><ul><li>c) - Partition along ethnic / cultural, religious & linguistic lines; </li></ul><ul><li>d) - Trieste-Type Solution ; </li></ul><ul><li>4)- The Independence Option; </li></ul><ul><li>5)- The Irish Model: </li></ul><ul><li>6)- The Chenab Formula </li></ul><ul><li>Indian accusation- Pak’s involvement in NE & </li></ul><ul><li>Khalistan Movement </li></ul>
  25. 32. CONCLUSION (1/2) <ul><li>NORTH-EAST INDIA </li></ul><ul><li>The neglect policy of central govt. coupled with its inefficiency might pave the way for separation of region from Indian Union. </li></ul><ul><li>KASHMIR </li></ul><ul><li>If Kashmir issue is not resolved, then there is every possibility of another war between two nuclear states, which can adversely affect the lives of people of whole region in general & of both countries in particular. </li></ul><ul><li>PUNJAB </li></ul><ul><li>The Indian claim that with the demise of Dr. Jagged Singh Chohan (the pioneer of Khalistan movement) the movement is over is contrary to facts. It is still popular in rural areas. </li></ul>
  26. 33. 2/2--- contd. <ul><li>MAOIST THREAT </li></ul><ul><li>It is biggest threat to Indian Union (Man Mohan Singh) </li></ul><ul><li>GENERAL CONCLUSION </li></ul><ul><li>Given the state of hopelessness amongst the have-nots in India and the momentum of insurgencies and separatist movements in its different parts coupled with absence of impact of miraculous economic growth to all, especially troubled areas can lead to a possible Balkanization of the country. </li></ul>
  27. 34. RECOMMENDATIONS <ul><li>A)- FOR KASHMIR </li></ul><ul><li>Withdrawal of Security forces from Indian held Kashmir; </li></ul><ul><li>Resumption of dialogue between India & Pakistan for discussing all outstanding issues, particularly Kashmir issue; </li></ul><ul><li>Holding of free plebiscite in accordance with UN resolutions; </li></ul><ul><li>APHC should be recognized as representative of the Kashmiri people; </li></ul><ul><li>Free movement of people & goods between two parts of Kashmir by removing administrative obstacles. </li></ul>
  28. 35. B)- FOR NE- INDIA & OTHER PARTS <ul><li>Instead of accusing & blaming others, India should foster close relations with countries bordering North-East India. It should settle its border disputes with those neighbouring countries. </li></ul><ul><li>As Indian Constitution allows the creation of a new state, consequently, where there is demand of a new state on the basis of language, culture or ethnicity, the same should be created. </li></ul><ul><li>W ithdrawl of forces from North-East India & other disturbed regions, & resort to a political solution. </li></ul><ul><li>Steps to address socio-economic problems of people of region. </li></ul><ul><li>More autonomy to states & empowerment of local population </li></ul>
  29. 36. C)- FOR INDIAN PUNJAB <ul><li>Sikh community be given respect, honour, & trust. </li></ul><ul><li>The issue of diversion of Punjab rivers water in violation of Indian Constitution to bordering Hindu-dominated non-riparian states should be settled on priority basis. </li></ul><ul><li>Steps to eradicate massive corruption in Indian Punjab. </li></ul><ul><li>Neutral & independent high level commission be constituted to thoroughly probe BLUE-STAR operations for fixing responsibilities of those involved in brutal killing of thousands of Sikhs in cold blood & attack on Golden Temple. </li></ul><ul><li>Still there are Sikhs who are in the custody of Intelligence agencies. They should be released immediately. </li></ul><ul><li>Political & administrative reforms (like introduced in Bihar) should be introduced in Punjab as well. </li></ul>
  30. 37. D)- MISC. RECOMMENDATIONS <ul><li>Seps to do away with notorious caste-system- (Legislation); </li></ul><ul><li>Effective accountability mechanism to control Corruption; </li></ul><ul><li>Diversion of defence budget for betterment & uplift of people; </li></ul><ul><li>Tricle down impact of eco. growth to troubled areas </li></ul><ul><li>******************** </li></ul>
  31. 39. BASIC FACTS ABOUT POP. & LANGUAGES (1/6) SOURCE: Dipankar Banerjee, Myanmar and Northeast-India, Delhi Policy Group, Delhi, 1997, p-11 . Bodos have developed their language in Devanascript. The Deuris, Tiwas & Ravas have adopted the Assamiya script for developing their respective languages. 26,638,407 Assam Khasi, Garo, Hajong, Rabha, Koch, Synteng, Mikir, Bodo Kachari. English is the official language of the State 2,318,822 Meghalaya The official languages of the state are English, Bengali and Kokborok. 3,199,203 Tripura Mizo language spoken by about 77% of the people is the official language of Mizoram. The minority languages are Chakma, Lakher, Pawi, any Kuki tribes, Hmar, Hindi, Nepali, Paite, etc. 888,573 Mizoram Number of tribes-17 (Each tribe speaks its own language). Artificial language known as Nagamese, based on the Assamese language,has evolved as a common link language. Nagamese is not the mother tongue of any of the tribes nor is it a written language 1,9990,036. Nagaland Adi, Apatani, Bhoti, Khampti, and Nishi (None of these languages, except Khampti, had any script.) 705,158 Arunchal Pradesh MAJOR LANGUAGES POPULATION NAME OF STATE
  32. 40. TARIPURA-POPULATION & % AGE OF MAJOR TRIBES NAGALAND- SCHEDULED TRIBE (ST) POPULATION OF NAGALAND (2/6) SOURCE: Office of the Registrar General, 2001, Census, India 0.1 1,582 Garo 1.1 20,195 Kuki 98. 1,741,692 Naga 100% 1,774,026 All Scheduled Tribes PROPORTION TO THE TOTAL ST POPULATION TOTAL POPULATION NAME OF THE TRIBE 1.2 12,416 Munda 3.1 30,385 Mag 4.8 47,245 Halam (Kuki) 6.5 64,293 Chakma 7.5 74,949 Jamatia 14.6 165,103 Riang 54.7 543,848 Tripuri
  33. 41. POPULATION OF MAJOR NAGA TRIBES (3/6) SOURCE: Office of the Registrar General, 2001, Census, India 3.5 60885 Chang 4.1 71871 Zeliang 4.4 75983 Yimchunger 4.8 83714 Sangtam 7.7 134646 Chakesang 6.6 115389 Phom 8.5 148210 Lotha 7.2 124696 Angami 14.0 243758 Konyak 13.9 241806 Sema 13.2 231823 Ao
  34. 42. MEGHALAYA - SCHEDULED TRIBE POPULATION (4/6) SOURCE: Office of the Registrar General, 2001, Census, India 0.5 10,085 Any Kuki tribes 0.6 11,399 Mikir 0.9 18,342 Synteng 1.1 21,381 Koch 1.4 28,153 Rabha 1.6 31,381 Hajong 34.6 689,639 Garo 56.4 1,123,490 Khasi 100% 1,992,862 All Scheduled Tribes PROPORTION TO THE TOTAL ST POPULATION TOTAL POPULATION NAME OF THE TRIBE
  35. 43. MIZORAM - SCHEDULED TRIBE POPULATION (5/6) SOURCE: Office of the Registrar General, 2001, Census, India ** 3 Man (Tai Speaking) ** 18 Mikir ** 74 Garo ** 95 Dimasa ** 419 Synteng 0.1 1,194 Any Naga Tribes 0.2 1,514 Khasi 2.2 18,155 Hmar 2.5 21,040 Any Kuki Tribes 4.3 36,018 Lakher 5.0 42,230 Pawi 8.5 71,282 Chakma 77 646,117 Any Mizo (Lushai) Tribes 100% 839,310 All ST Tribes PROPORTION TO THE TOTAL ST POPULATION TOTAL POPULATION NAME OF THE TRIBE
  36. 44. ASSAM - SCHEDULED TRIBE POPULATION (6/6) SOURCE: Office of the Registrar General, 2001, Census, India 1.2 41,161 Deori 3.4 110,976 Dimasa 5.2 170,622 Lalung 7.1 235,881 Kachari 8.4 277,517 Rabha 10.7 353,513 Mikir 17.8 587,310 Miri 40.9 1,352,771 Boro 100% 1. 3,308,570 All STs PROPORTION TO THE TOTAL ST POPULATION TOTAL POPULATION NAME OF THE TRIBE
  37. 45. SEPARATIST GROUPS IN NAGALAND (1/2) Socialist Democratic Front of Tripura (SDFT) 17 Tripura Tribal Action Committee Force (TTACF) 16 All Tripura Bharat Suraksha Force (ATBSF) 15 Tripura Tribal Youth Force (TTYF) 14 Tribal Commando Force (TCF) 13 All Tripura Volunteer Force (ATVF) 12 Tripura Defence Force (TDF) 11 Tripura Liberation Force (TLF) 10 Tripura Tribal Youth Force (TTYF) 09 Tripura Tribal Democratic Force (TTDF) 08 Tripura Armed Tribal Commando Force (TATCF) 07 Tripura Tribal Volunteer Force (TTVF) 06 United Bengali Liberation Front (UBLF) 05 Tripura Liberation Organisation Front (TLOF) 04 Naga National Council (Adino) - NNC (Adino) 03 National Socialist Council of Nagaland (Khaplang)- NSCN (K) 02 National Socialist Council of Nagaland (Isak-Muivah) - NSCN(IM) 01 Name of Group /Organisation S. No
  38. 46. SEPARATIST GROUPS IN ASSAM - (2/2) Muslim Security Council of Assam (MSCA) 17 Muslim United Liberation Front of Assam (MULFA) 16 Muslim United Liberation Tigers of Assam (MULTA) 15 Barak Valley Youth Liberation Front (BVYLF) 14 Gorkha Tiger Force(GTF) 13 All Assam Adivasi Suraksha Samiti (AAASS) 12 Adivasi Security Force (ASF) 11 Bengali Tiger Force (BTF) 10 Bircha Commando Force(BCF) 09 Tiwa National Revolutionary Force (TNRF) 08 Karbi People's Front(KPF) 07 Adivasi Cobra Force (ACF) 06 Koch-Rajbongshi Liberation Organisation (KRLO) 05 Rabha National Security Force (RNSF) 04 Karbi National Volunteers (KNV) 03 Dima Halom Daogah (DHD) 02 Bodo Liberation Tigers (BLT) 01 Name of Group /Organisation S. No
  39. 47. 74% 49% Proportion of households with electricity Rs.127 Rs.92 Per capital expenditure on public health 74% 59% Literacy Rs. 13629 Rs. 8433 Per capita income South India North India   COMPARISON BETWEEN NORTH INDIA AND SOUTH INDIA (1/3)
  40. 48. COMPARISON - 2/3
  41. 49. The remote tribal lands of Manipur state are still tilled by oxen (3/3)
  43. 51. 1/2