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The atmosphere and Environment<br />
The Atmosphere and the Environment<br />Composition of air<br />Air Pollution<br />1. Presentation in graphs/charts<br />I...
Composition of air<br />Air is a mixture of several gases, both elements and compounds. <br />Its composition varies from ...
Representations of air composition <br />
Only oxygen gas will react with copper upon heating. <br />We know that oxygen gas only constitute 20% of the volume of ai...
Air pollution<br />Definition : the pollution caused by chemicals in the air that can harm living things or damage non-liv...
Carbon monoxide<br />Properties <br />Poisonous<br />Colourless<br />Odourless<br />Source <br />Incomplete combustion of ...
3 Dimensional model of haemoglobin<br />
Oxides of nitrogen<br />Produced in 2 ways<br />Due to high temperature in a car engine, the nitrogen present combines wit...
Sulfur dioxide<br />Source <br /> Combustion of fossil fuel e.g. coal , crude oil and natural gas <br />Volcano eruptions<...
Effects from sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen <br />Eye irritation<br />Lung irritation  breathing difficulties<br /...
Forming acid rain<br />SO2 (g ) + H2O (l)  H2SO3 (aq) <br />Sulfur dioxide                sulfurous acid<br />H2SO3 then ...
Forming acid rain<br />4 NO2 (g) + 2H2O (l) + O2 (g)  4HNO3 (aq) <br />
Forming acid rain<br />CO2 (g) + H2O (l)  H2CO3 (aq) <br />
Effects of acid rain<br />Acid reacts with metals, carbonates in marble and limestone .<br />Recall acids chapter!!!<br />...
The Atmosphere and Environment
The Atmosphere and Environment
The Atmosphere and Environment
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The Atmosphere and Environment

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GCE N Level Science ( Chemistry )

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The Atmosphere and Environment

  1. 1. The atmosphere and Environment<br />
  2. 2. The Atmosphere and the Environment<br />Composition of air<br />Air Pollution<br />1. Presentation in graphs/charts<br />Identity of air pollutants<br />2. Experiments which show composition of air<br />Sources/how they are formed<br />Effects <br />Acid rain <br />Equations <br />Equations <br />
  3. 3. Composition of air<br />Air is a mixture of several gases, both elements and compounds. <br />Its composition varies from time to time. <br />
  4. 4. Representations of air composition <br />
  5. 5.
  6. 6. Only oxygen gas will react with copper upon heating. <br />We know that oxygen gas only constitute 20% of the volume of air. <br />Thus , after the heated copper reacts with oxygen gas, the volume of air will decrease by 20% ( 80% of the volume of air is left. )<br />Thus, the volume of air left in syringe B is  80% x 200cm3 = 160cm3<br />Answer: Option C<br />
  7. 7. Air pollution<br />Definition : the pollution caused by chemicals in the air that can harm living things or damage non-living things<br />Example - <br />Ozone , O3<br />Unburnt hydrocarbons<br />Carbon monoxide , CO<br />Oxides of nitrogen , NO , NO2<br />Sulfur dioxide , SO2<br />
  8. 8. Carbon monoxide<br />Properties <br />Poisonous<br />Colourless<br />Odourless<br />Source <br />Incomplete combustion of carbon-containing fuels ; i.e. incomplete combustion of petrol in car engines<br />Effects <br />CO reacts with haemoglobin in blood to form carboxyhaemoglobin. As a result, it cannot transport oxygen to the rest of the body.<br />Headaches, fatigue, breathing difficulties and even death<br />
  9. 9.
  10. 10. 3 Dimensional model of haemoglobin<br />
  11. 11. Oxides of nitrogen<br />Produced in 2 ways<br />Due to high temperature in a car engine, the nitrogen present combines with oxygen to form nitrogen monoxide (NO) or nitric oxide, a colourless gas. <br />N2 (g) + O2 (g)  2NO (g) <br />NO (g ) + O2 (g)  2NO2 (g) <br />2. Heat energy released when lightning strikes. This causes the nitrogen and oxygen to react to form NO and NO2.<br />
  12. 12. Sulfur dioxide<br />Source <br /> Combustion of fossil fuel e.g. coal , crude oil and natural gas <br />Volcano eruptions<br />Fossil fuel contains sulfur<br />S (s) + O2 (g)  SO2 (g)<br />
  13. 13. Effects from sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen <br />Eye irritation<br />Lung irritation  breathing difficulties<br />Inflammation of lungs  bronchitis<br />Both gasses form acid rain<br />Acid rain destroys buildings, plants and aquatic life<br />pH of acid rain ~ 4<br />
  14. 14. Forming acid rain<br />SO2 (g ) + H2O (l)  H2SO3 (aq) <br />Sulfur dioxide sulfurous acid<br />H2SO3 then slowly reacts with oxygen to form sulfuric acid, H2SO4<br />
  15. 15. Forming acid rain<br />4 NO2 (g) + 2H2O (l) + O2 (g)  4HNO3 (aq) <br />
  16. 16. Forming acid rain<br />CO2 (g) + H2O (l)  H2CO3 (aq) <br />
  17. 17. Effects of acid rain<br />Acid reacts with metals, carbonates in marble and limestone .<br />Recall acids chapter!!!<br />This affects metal bridges and stone buildings <br />Makes lakes and rivers acidic  kill fish and other aquatic life. <br />Leaches (dissolves out) important nutrients from the soil  plants are destroyed <br />

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