Finding SourcesIntroductionPrimary and secondary sourcesTypes of sourcesLocating sourcesTalk About ItYour TurnTech Tools in this presentation• Search engines• Soople• American Memory Collection
IntroductionNow that you have yourresearch questions, how doyou find the information youneed?There are many ways totrack down useful sources ofinformation.Discovering these methodsis the key to your search.
Primary and secondary sourcesThe most basic way to categorize any source in researchis as a primary source or a secondary source.A primary source A secondary source isis firsthand, information derivedoriginal from or about primaryinformation by sources.someonewho participatedin the eventbeingresearched.
Primary and secondary sourcesPrimary sources are original documents. A published piece such as Photograph a newspaper or magazine of Abraham article is consideredDeclaration of Lincoln as primary if written soonIndependence seen on $5 after the fact and not as a dollar bill. historical account.
Primary and secondary sourcesSecondary sources are at least one step removed fromthe event under review. They interpret, assign values to,conjecture upon, and draw conclusions about the eventsreported in primary sources.DVD offering ofPBS documentary Book Article
Primary and secondary sourcesIs each source below primary or secondary?a slave diary Primary Secondary Sources Sourcesmagazine articles diary articles about theabout the Civil War recording Civil War photograph biographya recording of anAfrican Americanspirituala biography ofHarriet Tubmana photograph of anabolitionist
Types of sourcesThere are many types of primary and secondary sourcesavailable. Below are more examples. Primary Secondary • Books• Original artwork • Biographies• Political posters • Critiques• Historic film • Pamphlets • Journal articles• Interviews • Personal narratives • Dissertation• Musical compositions • Lyrics • Renditions
Types of sources NondigitalAnother way to categorize types of sources is as digitalor nondigital. Digital sources are anything that can beaccessed or viewed using a computer. Nondigitalsources are• books• government documents• maps• videotapes You can use library catalogues, search• sound engines, databases, and so on to locate recordings nondigital sources, but to view them, you• music scores have to get an actual physical copy.
Types of sources DigitalThe key to locating relevant digital sources is to knowhow to search for information by using the computer andthe Internet.Access library databasesBrowse Internet sites identifiedby librarians in Research GuidesUse subject directoriesUse search enginesLearn advanced searchtechniques
Tech Tip Print vs. digital Like print, digital information encompasses thevarious print formats already mentioned. You willprobably want to explore different digital formats todevelop the various aspects of your topic. CD-ROMs Online encyclopedias Online newspapers nytimes.com and DVDs
Locating sourcesHow do you locate sources of information?Believe it or not,even in the worldof technology, agreat place tostart is yourschool or publiclibrary.
Locating sourcesLibraries make locating sources easy with an onlinecard catalogue, a collection of information about everyresource that a system of libraries owns.Most libraries have special computers for searching theironline catalogues. Many also offer free Internet access.
Tech Tool: Search EnginesSearch engines are online tools for locating Internetsources. They search the Web for relevant informationbased on keywords you select.If you enter several words, a searchengine will treat each word as aseparate keyword.If you put key words in quotationmarks, the search engine will locatesources that contain exactly thosewords.
Tech Tip Search engines Search engines have similar functions yet maywork differently. You will achieve the best results if youuse several search engines to locate your sources.AltaVista Lycos (http://www.lycos.com)(http://altavista.com) has a very large database andsearches over 30 million specialty areas for locatingWeb pages. Use multimedia.quotation marks forsearching phrases. Infoseek (http://www.infoseek.com) seeks the most closely matched information and relevant matches.Excite (http://www.excite.com) searches 50million sites and provides expanded features.
Tech Tool: SoopleSoople is a fast and easy way to use the advancedfeatures of Google. You can specify a search by file type,media, or a particular site. You can also search scholarlyjournals.
Locating sources Online databasesOnline databases are collections of records orinformation that allow you access to the deep Web(or “invisible Web”).The deep Web containssources that, unlike typicalsites, are not found by aregular search engine.Databases manage these hiddensources much like a filingcabinet, and you can search thedatabase for your topic.
Tech Tip Databases Ask your school librarian for online databasesources available for you to use. You may have severaloptions to choose from, such as the following. EBSCO ProQuest United Streaming Library of Congress
Tech Tool: American Memory CollectionThe American Memory collection is a free, publicdatabase provided by the Library of Congress.It was created tocapture America’s“memory” throughhistorical documents,moving images, soundrecordings, and printand photographicmedia.
Tech Tool: American Memory CollectionThe collection allows you to search in many sources fordigitized information on your topic, such as written or spoken word sound recordings still and moving images photographs maps sheet music
Tech Tool: American Memory CollectionBrowsing makes locating primary sources easy. Youcan browse by collection, time period, or geographicallocation.You can then searchwithin a collectionfor your specifictopic and select asource you want toview.
Talk About ItDiscuss these questions with your classmates.1.Which types of sources listed at the beginning of this lesson have you used before? Why did you choose that type of source? Was it helpful?2. What types of primary and secondary sources have you used before? How did you locate them? How did you use them?3. Have you ever used a database? What databases are available to you through your school library?4. After viewing this presentation, what are some new ways you will look for sources?
Your TurnOn a computer, follow these directions:1. Choose a specific topic. Using Soople, find the following types of sources related to the topic: • a PowerPoint presentation • an image • a PDF2. Add the term database to your search and list the top two responses on your paper.
Your Turn: Possible Responses1. My specific topic is the birth of American literature. My Soople search found a PowerPoint presentation called “American Literature to 1910,” a jpeg image of “The Narrative of the Captivity, Sufferings, and Removes of Mrs. Mary Rowlanfon,” and a PDF called “Early American Literature.”3. I found two databases: Online American Literature Resources Vol. 1 Hypertext – An Electronic Literature Site (University of Virginia)