• A force is a PUSH or PULL in any direction
• A force is balanced when two equal forces push or pull in the
opposite direction on the same object, like a draw in a Tug of War.
• An unbalanced force is when one force is larger than the other. The
object will then change its speed or the direction it is moving in.
• A stationary object, will remain stationary unless a force acts on it
• Force can speed objects up, slow objects down, make objects stop or
make objects change direction
• Work against each other to
hinder fluid movement
• Work together to produce a
more efficient (stronger)
• In PDHPE these ‘forces’ have specific names that either work to
enhance movement or can hinder movement
• They can impact both the athlete and the equipment they use
• For example, in soccer when you kick a ball. Most obvious is that the
athlete applies a force on the ball. However, many forces are in play…
• Internal forces: muscles causing movement, mass of ball
• External forces: gravity, wind resistance, rotational force
• In PDHPE you only need to recall the ones in the syllabus!!
• If you have a sport specific question (eg. Discus), you only need to
discuss the forces that impact that specific sport!!!
• Motion describes movement and path of a body
• Linear motion, velocity, speed, acceleration, momentum
• Only, linear motion, acceleration & momentum
PEE CHAIN – (POINT)DEFINE, EXAMPLE,
• Linear motion occurs when a body and all parts connected to it travel
the same distance in the same direction and at the same speed.
• Acceleration to increase speed quickly
• Momentum quantity of force a body contains. (M=mv)
• Aspects that impact momentum - mass of body, location of mass,
angular v linear momentum
• Balance and stability impacts both the athlete and sometimes
the equipment used (ie. Discus)
PEE CHAIN – (POINT)DEFINE, EXAMPLE,
• A solid base of support for discus thrower is integral because…
• The body can apply and absorb force
For every force there is an equal and opposite force
• This means for every action/movement there are two forces in play.
• For every force there is a reaction force that is equal in size, but opposite in
• A force can be transferred from one body to another
• Power (biomechanics) is the ability of muscle groups to
contract at speed.
• An increase in strength (force) or an increase in the speed at
which muscles shorten results in an increase in power.
• Jumpers and runners need to focus on rapid muscular
contraction while controlling the strength aspect. This is called
speed-dominated power. In contrast, the weight-lifter needs
power and must be able to lift the weight. He or she needs to
develop strength-dominated power.
There are principles to remember with the application of force on an object:
1)The quantity of force applied to the object is important. The greater
the force, the greater is the acceleration of the object
2)If the mass of an object is increased, more force is needed to move
the object the same distance. For example, if a football becomes heavier
as a result of wet conditions, more force is required to pass or kick it.
1)Objects of greater mass require more force to move them than
objects of smaller mass. The size of the discus, javelin and shot-put is
smaller for younger students than older students. This assumes that older
students have greater mass and are thereby able to deliver more force
than younger students because of their increased size (mass) and
In many sports and activities, the body rotates about an axis.
When this happens centripetal force and centrifugal force
Centripetal force is a force directed towards the centre of a
Centrifugal force is a force directed away from the centre of a
These forces commonly occur with skills that require rotation
such as the golf swing or the hammer throw.