By (Martha) Sarah Crowell ESL 502 Wilkes University
17 year old male, born in Korea Lived in US for 6 months Scored at the Entering Level for English on WAPT Began studying English in 6th grade Data collection Observed two writing pieces Descriptive paragraph about a tangible object (a sandal) Paragraph about New Year’s Resolutions 10 minute interview
Types of Errors FrequencyOmissions• Articles 12• Verbs 6• Particles 5• Pronouns 4• Conjunctions 3Verbs• Tense 4• Subject agreement 5Other• Word choice 4• Word order 13• Adjectives
What John wrote: Correct form: Error:Shoe is sandle. The shoe is a sandal. Its Missing articles “the” andIt’s black color. color is black. “a”; spelling. Word order.It use when we go beach. It’s used when we go to the Missing verb “is”; beach. subject/verb agreement; missing preposition “to”; missing article “the”I’m going to beach in hot I’m going to the beach Missing article “the”; wordsummer. during the hot summer. choice- “during” instead of “in”I’m very fun but very hot. I’m having fun but I’m very Word choice- missing verb hot. “having”; missing pronoun and verb “I’m”What John wrote: Correct form: Error:Resolution is promise to A Resolution is a promise to Missing articles “a” anddo better and New Year. do better in the New Year. “the”; word choice- preposition “in” instead of conjunction “and”My first resolution is do My first resolution is to do Missing particle “to”well in school. well in school.I will study English, get I will study English, get good “s” needs to be added togood grade and do grades and do my make noun plural; missinghomework. homework. pronoun “my”I will make a girlfriend I will get a girlfriend and Word choice- “get” insteadand make many friends. make a lot of friends. of “make”; “a lot” instead of “many” (overgeneralizations)
What John spoke: Correct form: Error:Dis country so big. This country is so big. Pronounced /ð/ as /d/Many different sings here. There are many different Pronounced /θ/ as /s/ things here.I live here for six munts, I I have lived here for six Incorrect pronunciations oftink. months, I think. /θ/ and /ð/
AlphabetKorean (Hangul) English Character alphabet 20 consonants 14 consonants 6 vowels 6 vowels 1 letter can be either consonant or vowel Written horizontally or Written horizontally vertically Clearly, there are several English consonant sounds that do not exist in Korean.
Korean English Word stress not important Relies on accents Several sounds do not exist Extra sounds not present /θ/ pronounced as /s/ so think becomes sink in Korean are difficult to /ð/ substituted with /d/ so learn this is pronounced dis Phonetic rules /v/ produced as a /b/ so very is pronounced berry Words can end in any vowel or consonant Phonetic rules Words end in vowels or select few consonants
Korean English subject-object-verb word order subject-verb-object word order agglutinative language where Analytic-style language where morphemes added to the end of grammatical relationships are the verb to make it contextual contained within the sentence verb tenses do not need to agree rather than attached to verb with subjects Multiple past tenses single past tense Use of articles to show reference No articles made by nouns Honorifics- markings for nouns and verbs that show formal Use plural ending to determine relationship between speaker if verb or noun is singular or and listener plural No plural endings- determine singular or plural by context
Korean English Students are quiet Cooperative learning Avoid eye contact encouraged Seldom initiate conversations Students frequently initiate with superior conversations with teachers Address instructor as Teacher addressed by formal “teacher”(use of name name disrespectful) Teacher facilitator to help Student responsibility to learn material students when they do not understand Feel ashamed when do not know answer because did not live up Not knowing is not equated to teacher expectations with shame. Rather more review is needed.
There are many differences between English and Korean languages This can make it difficult for learners to acquire new language without errors ESL teachers should be familiar with components of ELLs native language and culture Encourage bicultural approach rather than implying one culture more important than the other