Opera, Brahms, & Nationalism

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Romantic era: Opera, Brahms, Nationalism

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Opera, Brahms, & Nationalism

  1. 1. The Romantic Era The Nineteenth Century: Opera, Brahms, and Nationalism01/07/13 1
  2. 2. Some Important Romantic Composers of Opera  Italian  German  Rossini--operas in  von Weber--stage Italian and French effects and mysticism  Verdi--an innovator in  Wagner--music Italian opera dramas  Puccini--settings in  French foreign lands  Offenbach--French comic opera style, operettas  Bizet--cool reviews by audiences and critics, but later acclaimedListen to This 5-2By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  3. 3. Romantic Opera: Background Information  Opera was “grand.”  Musical and “extra-musical” ideas of Romanticism could be expressed fully.  The libretto, staging, acting, costumes, sets, and characters added to the expression of the instrumental music.  Audiences loved the spectacle.  Opera performers were “stars.”Listen to This 5-3By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  4. 4. Subjects of Typical Romantic Operas  Beethoven--Fidelio--  Bizet--Carmen-- heroism, love, death common man, love,  Von Weber--Der death, exotic cultures Freishcültz--magic,  Puccini--Madama supernatural, mysterious Butterfly and Turandot--distant  Verdi--La Traviata-- love, death, beauty lands, travel, exotic cultures, love, death  Wagner--Die Walküre--hero, supernatural, loveListen to This 5-4By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  5. 5. Earlier Opera vs. Romantic Operation  Before 1800  After 1800  A series of songs  Performers act as (arias and duets) characters in a  Thin plot lines tightly knit plot  Choruses and  Choruses and instrumental music instrumental music are fillers, integral to story introductions, or  Opera showcases interludes not only musical  During arias, brilliance but grand action stops spectacle of dramaListen to This 5-5By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  6. 6. Italian Romantic Opera: Characteristics  Italian = dominant language  Bel canto style continues  Verdi’s innovations--typical of period  High quality librettos; arias grew out of plot and blended with action  Plot and staging discouraged interruptions of mood and story for applause  Human, believable characters  Instrumental passages integral to mood, highly expressive; not just fillersListen to This 5-6By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  7. 7. Giuseppe Verdi (1813- 1901)  Born in Busseto, Italy, where he studied music until age 18.  Couldn’t play piano well enough to study at Milan Conservatory, so studied privately.  Composed more than 25 operas, many for Milan’s famous opera house, La Scala.  Was also a politician--appointed to Italian parliament and elected to the senate.  Established a home for retired opera singers.Listen to This 5-7By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  8. 8. Giuseppe Verdi(1813-1901)  Music education funded by prosperous merchant  Married merchant’s daughter  Wife & two children died  Gave up composing for a year due to these tragedies, failed opera  Nebucco-story of Nebuchadnezzar, relaunched career  Re-married, composed opera in his eightiesListen to This 5-8By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  9. 9. Guiseppe Verdi (1813 - 1901)  Verdi lived in an unmarried relationship with a woman; this is reflected in the story of La Traviata.  Verdi sought to reform cultural and political conventions through his art and his activities.  Advocated for the unification of Italy.  Elected to the newly constituted Italian parliament in 1860.  Other important compositions  Operas Il Travatore, Rigoletto, Aïda, Otello, Falstaff  Requiem--a Mass for the DeadListen to This 5-9By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  10. 10. Verdi  Subjects of operas & sources  Rigoletto-Victor Hugo  “La donna mobile”-Duke’s aria, expresses pleasure- seeking personality  Knew it would be popular, waited until opening night to rehearse it  La Traviata-Alexander Dumas  Pretty Woman opera  Othello  MacbethListen to This 5-10By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  11. 11. Verismo After the Romanticism of Bellini and others, Italian opera entered a “realistic”(verismo) phase, with true to life individuals and true emotions expressed Strong emotional situations, speed of action, and contrast with plenty of opportunity for exciting, lusty, ferocious melodies and rhythmsListen to This 5-11By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  12. 12. Verismo  A typical plot involves:  X(soprano) and Y(tenor) have a project in common. They may or may not achieve it in the fact of Z(mezzo or bass antagonist). Paternal or maternal type(W) may help or interfere. X and Y are forced to make a moral choice which usually causes their downfall.Listen to This 5-12By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  13. 13. Verdi  Verdi’s ideas are of unswerving fidelity to themes, certain emotions, and morals (behavioral, political, social, sexual)  Glorifies honor, patriotism, and father-daughter relationships  Exhibits hatred of oppression, inequality, and tyranny  Through all, judges his characters with understanding, compassion, and indulgenceListen to This 5-13By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  14. 14. Guiseppe Verdi (1813 - 1901)Listen to This 5-14By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  15. 15. Giacomo Puccini (1858-1924)  Born in Lucca, Italy; family were church composers; started out wanting to do that  After seeing Aida, went to study opera composition at Milan Conservatory  An important Italian opera composer of the Late Romantic Period  Settings for some important operas are exotic: Madama Butterfly (Japan), Turandot (China), The Girl of the Golden West (California, U.S.A), ToscaListen to This 5-15By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  16. 16. Giacomo Puccini(1858- 1924)  Younger, not as sophisticated  Used verismo  Characters rejected heroic, mythological concepts  La boheme  Story of artsy, hippie lifestyle on Left Bank of Seine in ParisListen to This 5-16By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  17. 17. La boheme  Poet, painter, philosopher, musician  Struggling for money & food  Mimi meets Rodolfo(poet), they fall in love  She dies of TB  Not as long as typical 19th century opera  Still very popularListen to This 5-17By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  18. 18. French Opera: Characteristics  Paris became opera capital of Europe.  Known for elaborate productions  French opera  Popular with middle class audiences  Enjoyed the spectacle--singing, dancing, costumes, staging, sets  Large choruses, ballet, and lavish sets particularly important in French grand opera  Less elaborate staging; lighter subjects; less pretentious; emphasis on satire and wit  Jacques Offenbach--first to write in this styleListen to This 5-18By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  19. 19. Carmen  A landmark in French opera  Classified as opéra comique because it included spoken dialogue; it was really a tragic story.  Story of two doomed lovers in Seville, Spain  Began a trend of operatic realism (called verismo) that inspired such famous operas as La bohéme and Tosca (Puccini).Listen to This 5-19By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  20. 20. Opera Divas  Diva--means “the goddess.”  More than a singer; a diva is a phenomenon.  Life story fascinates audiences as much as virtuosic singing.  Famous operatic divas  Maria Callas, Renata Tebaldi, Joan Sutherland, and Kiri Te KanawaListen to This 5-20By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  21. 21. German Opera: Characteristics  German composers began to compose in German: Mozart (The Magic Flute), von Weber--Der Freischütz (The Freeshooter).  Librettos involved magic, mysticism, the supernatural, distant and exotic lands and cultures, love, and heroes.  Rejected the stories of court intrigues and farces.Listen to This 5-21By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  22. 22. German Opera  Very different from Italian  Language more guttural, music heavier, less light-hearted  Nordic gods instead of Greeks  Carl Maria von Weber-Der Freischutz  Based on German folklore  Offers mysticism, rustic scenes, etc.Listen to This 5-22By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  23. 23. Wagner’s Music DramasRomantic Opera in The Extreme  Unification of drama & music Music Drama  Musical theme represents person, Lietmotif place, idea  As long as 5 hours-intermissions Extremely Long, long enough to go to dinner and Complex return Elaborate Staging,  Expensive and sometimes garish Sets, Costumes  The idea: a total asthetic experience in one GesamtkunstwerkListen to This 5-23By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  24. 24. Wagner  Created “Grand Opera”, or Music Drama  Wrote own libretto  Mythological topics, appealed best to emotions  Philosophical overtones: good vs. evil, contest between physical & spiritual, redemption through love  Characters pawns of uncontrollable forcesListen to This 5-24By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  25. 25. Wagner  Grand Opera  Longer, more instruments, more characters  Doubled winds, added percussion  Not accepted at time, more after Wagner’s death  Full of emotion  Eliminated recitative, aria, chorus to achieve unending melody  More chromatic harmony, no idea for tonic  Orchestra more important, bigger and louderListen to This 5-25By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  26. 26. Der Ring des Nibelungen Greatest musical achievement Opera Cycle “It ain’t over till the fat lady sings.”Listen to This 5-26By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  27. 27. Richard Wagner The Valkyrie, Act III  Story: In The Valkyrie, the main characters are Wotan (chief of the gods), his daughter Brünnhilde (a warrior-like Valkyrie). Brünnhilde has intervened on behalf of a human couple, and Wotan condemns her to death. She pleads for a lesser sentence and is stripped of her godlike powers, put into a deep sleep, and surrounded with a ring of fire that can be crossed only by someone who isn’t afraid of Wotan’s spear. In this scene Wotan is saying goodbye to his beloved daughter and summons Loge to create the circle of fire.Listen to This 5-27By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  28. 28. Richard Wagner The Leitmotif  Leitmotif--a brief musical phrase or idea that is connected dramatically to some person, event, or idea in the drama  When the leitmotif is heard, it causes the audience to recognize the person, event or idea.  Similar to the “shark theme” in Jaws.Listen to This 5-28By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  29. 29. Wagner and Tolkien: The Ring and Lord of the Rings  Both contain 4 works; the first is a prelude to the rest of the story; based on Nordic myths.  Both emphasize the power of the ring and the grief it brings the owner who covets the power.  The plots center on people’s efforts to own and control the ring.  Both start with a state of purity that is corrupted later and then restored.  Both feature giants, dragons, dwarves, a riddling match, and a shattered sword recast to be more powerful.Listen to This 5-29By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  30. 30. Richard Wagner (1813 - 1883)  The most controversial composer who ever lived--some love him; some hate him.  Controversial figure--had very questionable character to achieve goals; an anti-Semite who may have influenced Hitler  Operas are full of social and political ideas.  Rienzi-1st success  Born in Leipzig, son of police officer.  Studied music of Beethoven.  Held a series of positions as conductor.Listen to This 5-30By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  31. 31. Richard Wagner (1813 - 1883)  Fled Germany in 1848; first to house of Liszt, then to Switzerland; lived there for 10 years.  Second wife: Cosima Liszt  King Ludwig II of Bavaria supported him and his art.  Built a large opera house in Bayreuth--called Festspielhaus (“a festival drama house”).  1876-1st Bayreuth Festival, continues today  Oversaw the building of the opera house and all the performances there  Buried at opera houseListen to This 5-31By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  32. 32. Richard Wagner Other Operas  The Flying Dutchman  Tannhäuser  Lohengrin  Tristan und Isolde  Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg  ParsifalListen to This 5-32By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  33. 33. Some History of Late 19th Century Professional composers supported themselves; they were celebrities. Public concert societies promoted and staged concerts Philharmonic and Symphony Orchestra Societies sprang up in Europe and the U.S.  New York Philharmonic, Boston Symphony, etc. Concert audiences grew and so did the demand for new music; composers had enthusiastic audiences.Listen to This 5-33By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  34. 34. The Role of the Conductor  Primarily to keep the musicians playing together  Also to interpret the music through communicating nuances of dynamics, rhythm, texture, and timbre.  Instrument IS the orchestra.  Famous conductors--Arturo Toscanini (NBC Orchestra in United States), Leonard Bernstein (New York Philharmonic)Listen to This 5-34By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  35. 35. Two Movements in Mainstream Concert Music  Radical: led by  Traditional: led by Wagner Brahms  Form of music  Forms and tonality still subservient to important; should be emotional expression recognizable  Wandering tonality  Minimal extramusical  Loose, vague forms associations  Minimal emotionalism  Reliance on extra- musical associations  Chamber music, solo  Music dramas, operas concertos, symphoniesListen to This 5-35By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  36. 36. Johannes Brahms (1833-1897) Born in Hamburg, Germany, Son of shiftless double- bass player A pianist who toured with the violinist, Remenyi, at age 20 Went to Düsseldorf to study with Robert Schumann (and met his wife, Clara, with whom he maintained a close relationship). Moved to Vienna--never committed to a single job. Destroyed compositions he felt were inferior along with many personal documents.Listen to This 5-36By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  37. 37. Johannes Brahms (1833 - 1897)  Lived his life as a veritable recluse--a very private individual.  Robert Schumann, praised him as the “savior of music.”  One of the “three B’s” of German music--Bach, Beethoven, and Brahms  Interested in the music of the past  His music synthesized ideas from past and from the current time.Listen to This 5-37By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  38. 38. Johannes Brahms(1833-1897)  “A Classicist adrift in the torrents of Romanticism”  No opera or tone poemListen to This 5-38By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  39. 39. Brahms’ Music: Characteristics  Imitated Beethoven’s symphonies, but not innovative like Beethoven.  Audiences called his 1st symphony, “Beethoven’s 10th.”  Avoided extreme changes in musical expression (like those of Liszt and Wagner).  Used and expanded classical forms.  Used recognizable tonality with some chromaticism.Listen to This 5-39By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  40. 40. Ein Deutches Requiem  Composed early in career, 1868, after Schumann’s death  Does not involve traditional Latin text  Personal statement of faith based on German verses, Old & New Testament  7 movements; bass, soprano soloists; chorus; orchestra  4th movement: How Lovely is Thy Dwelling Place; chorus & orchestraListen to This 5-40By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  41. 41. Brahms with friend, Johann Strauss, Jr.Listen to This 5-41By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  42. 42. Johannes Brahms Other Compositions  Symphony no.1 in C Minor  Symphony no. 2 in D Major  Symphony no. 3 in F Major  Piano Concerto no. 1 in D Minor  Piano Concerto no. 2 in B-flat Major  Violin Concerto in D major  Academic Festival Overture  Clarinet Quintet in B MinorListen to This 5-42By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  43. 43. Nationalism  Refers to deliberate, conscious attempt to develop artworks characteristic of a particular country or region  Attempt to break away from German-Austrian style  Proof that other countries had composers also  Political climate of EuropeListen to This 5-43By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  44. 44. European Politics of the Late 19th/Early 20th Century  Citizens demanded democratic forms of government  French and American Revolutions sparked similar unrest in many countries throughout Western Europe, Russia, and Scandinavia  Europe became industrialized; farmers moved to cities; people recognized shared heritage.  National pride developed, and musicians incorporated folk traditions in their works.Listen to This 5-44By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  45. 45. New Republics Formed  1830: The  1871: Germany Netherlands became unified into an empire independent  1872: Portugal  1830 Belgium became republic became independent  1917: Russians  1861: Italy unified its overthrew Czar; city-states beginning of Soviet UnionListen to This 5-45By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  46. 46. Changes in Transportation  Passenger trains took people all over Europe: replaced stagecoaches  Steamships replaced sailing ships; allowed relatively easy Transatlantic crossings  Musicians, writers, and artists traveled and experienced other cultures; they included them in their compositions, poems, and artworks.Listen to This 5-46By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  47. 47. 19th Century Nationalism in Russia: The Russian Five  5 Russian  Nikolai Rimsky- composers band Korsakov together  Modest Mussorgsky  Promote purely Russian music  Alexander Borodin  Incorporate history,  César Cui folklore, legends,  Mily Balakirev native instruments, native musicListen to This 5-47By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  48. 48. Modest Mussorgsky (1839-1881)  Born in Pskof, Russia: aristocratic family  Worked in the Russian Guard and composed on side  Trained by Balakirev  Incorporated inflection of Russian language in his compositions  An original and influential composerListen to This 5-48By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  49. 49. Modest Mussorgsky(1839-1881)  Considered least accomplished during lifetime  Now greatest of Russian Five  Not interested in musical career, entered military academy  Skilled at piano & singing, popular at parties  Alcoholic, bizarre behavior  Died age 42  Rarely finished works, much completed by Rimsky- KorsakovListen to This 5-49By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  50. 50. Modest Mussorgsky (1839-1881)  Some famous works  Opera: Boris Godunov  Songs: The Nursery, Sunless, Songs and Dances of Death; many others  Orchestral music: tone poem Night on Bald Mountain (one of pieces in Disney’s Fantasia)  Piano music: Pictures at an ExhibitionListen to This 5-50By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  51. 51. Pictures at an Exhibition  Promenade  The Great Gate of Kiev  Rock version by Emerson, Lake, & PalmerListen to This 5-51By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  52. 52. Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov (1844-1908) Born in Tikhvin, Russia Served 11 years in Russian Navy as Inspector of Naval Bands Then taught composition and orchestration at St. Petersburg Conservatory of Music Arranged and edited collections of Russian folk music Edited many of Mussorgsky’s and Borodin’s works for performance Famous students: Igor Stravinsky and Sergei Prokofiev (20th century composers) Best known for symphonic poems and operasListen to This 5-52By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  53. 53. Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov (1844-1908) Some famous works  Opera: Sadko, Mozart and Salieri, Snegurochka (Snow Maiden), Le Coz d’or (The Golden Cockerel), Skzka o Tsare Saltane (Tale of Czar Saltan): includes “The Flight of the Bumble Bee”  Orchestral music: Symphonic suite Scheherazade; Overture: Capriccio espagnol; Russian Easter OvertureListen to This 5-53By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  54. 54. Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky (1840-1893) Born in Votinsk, Russia Studied law, worked in Ministry of Justice until age 23 Studied at St. Petersburg Conservatory of music with Anton Rubinstein Taught music at Moscow Conservatory until age 37 when he retired to compose One failed marriage, lived with brothers in St. Petersburg Supported financially by Nadezhda von Meck, required they never meet 1893-contracted choleraListen to This 5-54By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  55. 55. Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky (1840-1893)  Toured Russia, London, Europe as guest conductor  Guest conductor with New York philharmonic for opening of Carnegie Hall  NOT accepted into Russian Five; believed to be too cosmopolitan and influenced by music of other nations be be a Russian nationalist  Suffered hatred because of his homosexuality; probably committed suicide at age 53Listen to This 5-55By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  56. 56. Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky (1840-1893)  Some famous works  Opera: Eugene Onegin, The Queen of Spades, Mazeppa  Orchestral music: Ballets: Swan Lake, Sleeping Beauty, The Nutcracker; Overtures: Romeo and Juliet, 1812 Overture, March slav; 6 symphonies No. 2 Little Russian, No. 3 Polish, No. 5 Pathétique; Concertos: 3 piano, 1 violin; Miscellaneous: Capriccio italien, Capriccio espagnolListen to This 5-56By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  57. 57. Bedrich Smetana(1824-1884)  Small town in Bohemia  Studied in Prague  Pianist for Kaiser Ferdinand  Became deaf toward end of life  No believer in “absolute music”  The Moldau(1874)  Best known work from Ma Vlast(My Country)Listen to This 5-57By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  58. 58. Other Nationalist Composers Edvard Grieg-Norway  Peer Gynt Suite-incidental music for Henrik Ibsen play Jean Sibelius-Finland  Finlandia-became national of country Edward Elgar-England  Pomp & Circumstance Ralph Vaughan-Williams-England  Fantasia on a Theme by Thomas Tallis Manuel de Falla, Isaac Albañiz, Enrique Granados-SpainListen to This 5-58By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

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