The Pluperfect Indicative(El pluscuamperfecto del indicativo) El año pasado, nadie había oído de los Romero. ¡Ahora es casi imposible conseguir entradas!
The Formation of the PluperfectLike the present perfect tense, the pluperfect is acompound tense. It is formed with the imperfecttense of haber + past participle. había habíamos Past participle—habías habíais + masculine singular form onlyhabía habían
The Formation of the PluperfectNotice the following chart: Imperfect tense Past Past tense of to Past of haber participle have participle yo había I had tú habías you had tomado taken Ud. había comido you (form.) had eaten él, ella había vivido he, she had lived nosotros/as habíamos we had vosotros/as habíais you (pl. fam) had Uds. habían you (pl. fam.) had ellos, ellas habían they, you (pl.) had
A breakdown of the terminologyThe word pluscuamperfecto itself is a compoundword. If we divide it into its three components . . . pluscuamperfecto
A breakdown of the terminologyThe word pluscuamperfecto itself is a compoundword. If we divide it into its three components . . . plus cuamperfecto
A breakdown of the terminologyThe word pluscuamperfecto itself is a compoundword. If we divide it into its three components . . . plus cuam perfecto more than past. . . we find that the term defines how this verbtense describes an action or event—back pastanother past action or event, or “more than past.”
A time line showing verb tense relationships the pluperfect the preterit the present (previous to past) (past) (now) Yo no había estudiado lo Yo saqué una C en el Ahora yo soy un muy suficiente. examen de mitad de buen estudiante. semestre. toward the past toward the future the present The pluperfect is perfect always related to another past tense. (from the past up ‘til now) Yo he estudiado mucho más desde el examen de mitad de semestre. The pluperfect is never used in total isolation. It must always be accompanied by another explicit or implied past event or action.
Again, the pluperfect is used to refer to an action or eventthat had occurred before another past action or event.Compare the following sentences with the time line. “more than past Present Past past” Future dirigir venir cantar entrar estar decir “more than pastEl director había dirigido past” otras dos orquestas antes de venir a Boston. The director had conducted two other orchestras before coming to Boston. past “more thanCuando entramos, la diva ya había cantado past” el aria. When we entered, the diva had already sung the aria. past “more thanNos dijo que el compositor había estado past” enfermo. He told us that the composer had been sick.
Remember that in compound tenses nothing maybe inserted between the auxiliary haber and thepast participle; haber must agree in number withthe subject, and the past participle has only oneform. El público lo había visto antes. The public had seen him before. Los músicos habían tocado maravillosamente. The musicians had played marvelously.