Literature ReviewGender Specific Substance Abuse Treatment Programs<br />Do  Women Need Special Treatment Programs?<br />
Areas of Substance Abuse Treatment<br />There are very few evidence-based treatment programs for women<br />6/28/2011<br /...
Social Model Programs<br />Many current social models are<br />co-ed and usually concentrate on needs of men<br />6/28/201...
Social Model Programs<br />Social model programs do not attend to all factors associated with being a woman.<br />6/28/201...
Literature Review Gender Specific Substance Abuse Programs<br />6/28/2011<br />Presented by Lynda Edner<br />5<br />The ph...
Literature Review Gender Specific Substance Abuse Programs<br />Research shows that gender does make a difference when dev...
Literature Review<br />Gender specific programs will address and take into account a woman’s <br /><ul><li>social and econ...
relationships with family
extended family </li></ul>6/28/2011<br />Presented by Lynda Edner<br />7<br />
Literature Review<br /><ul><li>support systems
the impact of gender and culture</li></ul>6/28/2011<br />Presented by Lynda Edner<br />8<br />
Social Programs<br /><ul><li>Prior to 1992 - 75% of those enrolled in substance abuse programs were men
Many of those programs were structured to meet the needs of men</li></ul>6/28/2011<br />Presented by Lynda Edner<br />9<br />
Research on Alcoholism<br /><ul><li>Most research on alcoholism did not include women
There was a trend to study women as they became more involved with substance abuse</li></ul>6/28/2011<br />Presented by Ly...
Research on Alcoholism<br /><ul><li>Between 1970-1984 approximately 8% of the subjects studied for substance abuse were wo...
Gender DifferencesBetween Men and Women<br /><ul><li>Women
Women have more psychiatric symptoms
Reported more depression and anxiety</li></ul>6/28/2011<br />Presented by Lynda Edner<br />12<br />
Gender Differences Between Men and Women<br /><ul><li>Women
Experienced low self-esteem upon admission
Reported higher rates of childhood sexual abuse</li></ul>6/28/2011<br />Presented by Lynda Edner<br />13<br />
Life Circumstances<br />Men and women experience different roles and life circumstances <br /><ul><li>Relationship with fa...
Social
Economic
Cultural environments</li></ul>6/28/2011<br />Presented by Lynda Edner<br />14<br />
Risk FactorsFor Women<br />Risk factors leading to substance abuse<br /><ul><li>Childhood sexual abuse
Childhood physical abuse</li></ul>6/28/2011<br />Presented by Lynda Edner<br />15<br />
Risk FactorsFor Women<br /><ul><li>Risk factors leading to substance abuse
Adult victimization by domestic violence
Partner or spouse who abuses substances</li></ul>6/28/2011<br />Presented by Lynda Edner<br />16<br />
Other Factors Leading to Substance Abuse<br /><ul><li>Victims of domestic violence have higher incidents of substance abus...
Other Factors Leading to Substance Abuse<br /><ul><li>Factors of oppression leading to substance abuse</li></ul>Discrimina...
Gender Specific Issues<br /><ul><li>Addressing childhood issues is a common practice in early treatment programs
Not addressing childhood issues places women in a vulnerable position contributing to relapse</li></ul>6/28/2011<br />Pres...
Gender Specific Issues While Enrolled in Treatment <br /><ul><li>Some women experience high anxiety when their children ar...
Insufficient childcare is a barrier for women entering and committing to treatment</li></ul>6/28/2011<br />Presented by Ly...
Gender Specific Issues While Enrolled<br />Other research shows having sufficient childcare  on site is not a barrier in w...
Gender Specific Issues While Enrolled<br /><ul><li>Women’s anxiety levels increase while in the presence of men, as they e...
Gender Specific Issues While Enrolled<br />Women experience higher levels of:<br /><ul><li>Depression
Anxiety
Anger
Hostility
Conflict with others</li></ul>6/28/2011<br />Presented by Lynda Edner<br />23<br />
Gender Specific Issues While Enrolled<br /><ul><li>Loneliness
Sexual abuse
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Gender Specific Substance Abuse Programs V1

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Literature Review on Need for Gender Specific Substance Abuse Treatment Programs

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  • To address these concerns, an analysis through a national survey of treatment providers for the period 1987 to 1998 was to examine: a) changes in the proportion of women clients served within different types of treatment facilities, and b) the services provided in these facilities.
  • In response to the problems of drug-exposed infants and the policy maker&apos;s focus on the national war on drugs, Congress doubled the women&apos;s set aside fund to 10%. Subsequently, through the General Accounting Office (GAO), treatment programs for substance-using pregnant and postpartum women were sponsored by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Service Administration (SAMHSA) through the Residential Women and Children/Pregnant and Postpartum Women Demonstration Program and by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Perinatal-20 initiative (Grella, C., Greenwell, L. 2004).
  • Source: (Grella, C., Greenwell, L. 2004).
  • Source: Grella, C., Greenwell, L. 2004 p 371).
  • Source: Grella, C., Greenwell, L. 2004 p 371).
  • (Grella, C., Greenwell, L. 2004).
  • (Grella, C., Greenwell, L. 2004).
  • In summary, the programs that provided comprehensive services, which addressed women&apos;s needs showed improved treatment outcomes, from 28% in 1987 to 32% in 1998. There was also a 30% increase in women&apos;s admissions from 1992 to 1998 according to the Treatment Episode Data System (TEDS) (Grella, C., Greenwell, L. 2004 p 378
  • Additional research &quot;studies by the National Drug Abuse Treatment Outcomes (DATOS) indicated that &quot;gender-sensitive&quot; treatment programs offering family therapy, individual counseling and family services, resulted in longer stays and were positively associated with post treatment abstinence&quot; (Grella, C., Greenwell, 2004). (Grella, C.,Greenwell, L. (2004) p 378).
  • (Newton, K. 2008).
  • Source: (Newton, K. 2008)..
  • (Grella, C., Greenwell, L. 2004)
  • Source: (SAMHSA, 2009)
  • Goldberg, M. (1995) Substance-abusing women: False stereotypes and real needs. Periodical National Association of Social Workers, Inc.Grella, Christine, Greenwell, L. Journal of Behavior Services and Research, 2004, 31 (4), 367-383, 2004 National Counsel for Community Behavioral HealthcareJones, V. (2008) A comparison of anxiety levels among women in mixed gender substance abuse treatment facilities and women-only substance abuse treatment facilities Dissertation-School of Education Duquesne University Newton, K, (2008), African American women&apos;s perceptions of and experiences with mandated substance abuse treatment: Implications for counselors Dissertations &amp; Theses, Georgia State University
  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) (2009) Center for Substance Abuse Treatment: Substance Abuse Treatment: Addressing the Specific Needs of Women TIP-51 Wallen, J. (1992) A Comparison of Male and Female Clients in Substance Abuse Treatment, Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, Vol. 9. pp 243-248 Department of Family and Community Development, College of Human Ecology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland
  • Gender Specific Substance Abuse Programs V1

    1. 1. Literature ReviewGender Specific Substance Abuse Treatment Programs<br />Do Women Need Special Treatment Programs?<br />
    2. 2. Areas of Substance Abuse Treatment<br />There are very few evidence-based treatment programs for women<br />6/28/2011<br />Presented by Lynda Edner<br />2<br />
    3. 3. Social Model Programs<br />Many current social models are<br />co-ed and usually concentrate on needs of men<br />6/28/2011<br />Presented by Lynda Edner<br />3<br />
    4. 4. Social Model Programs<br />Social model programs do not attend to all factors associated with being a woman.<br />6/28/2011<br />Presented by Lynda Edner<br />4<br />
    5. 5. Literature Review Gender Specific Substance Abuse Programs<br />6/28/2011<br />Presented by Lynda Edner<br />5<br />The physical and psychological effects of alcohol and drugs on men and women are different when addressing substance abuse disorders.<br />
    6. 6. Literature Review Gender Specific Substance Abuse Programs<br />Research shows that gender does make a difference when developing substance abuse treatment programs. <br />6/28/2011<br />Presented by Lynda Edner<br />6<br />
    7. 7. Literature Review<br />Gender specific programs will address and take into account a woman’s <br /><ul><li>social and economic environment
    8. 8. relationships with family
    9. 9. extended family </li></ul>6/28/2011<br />Presented by Lynda Edner<br />7<br />
    10. 10. Literature Review<br /><ul><li>support systems
    11. 11. the impact of gender and culture</li></ul>6/28/2011<br />Presented by Lynda Edner<br />8<br />
    12. 12. Social Programs<br /><ul><li>Prior to 1992 - 75% of those enrolled in substance abuse programs were men
    13. 13. Many of those programs were structured to meet the needs of men</li></ul>6/28/2011<br />Presented by Lynda Edner<br />9<br />
    14. 14. Research on Alcoholism<br /><ul><li>Most research on alcoholism did not include women
    15. 15. There was a trend to study women as they became more involved with substance abuse</li></ul>6/28/2011<br />Presented by Lynda Edner<br />10<br />
    16. 16. Research on Alcoholism<br /><ul><li>Between 1970-1984 approximately 8% of the subjects studied for substance abuse were women</li></ul>6/28/2011<br />Presented by Lynda Edner<br />11<br />
    17. 17. Gender DifferencesBetween Men and Women<br /><ul><li>Women
    18. 18. Women have more psychiatric symptoms
    19. 19. Reported more depression and anxiety</li></ul>6/28/2011<br />Presented by Lynda Edner<br />12<br />
    20. 20. Gender Differences Between Men and Women<br /><ul><li>Women
    21. 21. Experienced low self-esteem upon admission
    22. 22. Reported higher rates of childhood sexual abuse</li></ul>6/28/2011<br />Presented by Lynda Edner<br />13<br />
    23. 23. Life Circumstances<br />Men and women experience different roles and life circumstances <br /><ul><li>Relationship with family, friends, and existing support systems
    24. 24. Social
    25. 25. Economic
    26. 26. Cultural environments</li></ul>6/28/2011<br />Presented by Lynda Edner<br />14<br />
    27. 27. Risk FactorsFor Women<br />Risk factors leading to substance abuse<br /><ul><li>Childhood sexual abuse
    28. 28. Childhood physical abuse</li></ul>6/28/2011<br />Presented by Lynda Edner<br />15<br />
    29. 29. Risk FactorsFor Women<br /><ul><li>Risk factors leading to substance abuse
    30. 30. Adult victimization by domestic violence
    31. 31. Partner or spouse who abuses substances</li></ul>6/28/2011<br />Presented by Lynda Edner<br />16<br />
    32. 32. Other Factors Leading to Substance Abuse<br /><ul><li>Victims of domestic violence have higher incidents of substance abuse</li></ul>6/28/2011<br />Presented by Lynda Edner<br />17<br />
    33. 33. Other Factors Leading to Substance Abuse<br /><ul><li>Factors of oppression leading to substance abuse</li></ul>Discrimination <br />Housing<br />Employment<br />Educational organizations<br />6/28/2011<br />Presented by Lynda Edner<br />18<br />
    34. 34. Gender Specific Issues<br /><ul><li>Addressing childhood issues is a common practice in early treatment programs
    35. 35. Not addressing childhood issues places women in a vulnerable position contributing to relapse</li></ul>6/28/2011<br />Presented by Lynda Edner<br />19<br />
    36. 36. Gender Specific Issues While Enrolled in Treatment <br /><ul><li>Some women experience high anxiety when their children are with them on site during treatment
    37. 37. Insufficient childcare is a barrier for women entering and committing to treatment</li></ul>6/28/2011<br />Presented by Lynda Edner<br />20<br />
    38. 38. Gender Specific Issues While Enrolled<br />Other research shows having sufficient childcare on site is not a barrier in women-only settings <br />6/28/2011<br />Presented by Lynda Edner<br />21<br />
    39. 39. Gender Specific Issues While Enrolled<br /><ul><li>Women’s anxiety levels increase while in the presence of men, as they explore their relationships with men</li></ul>6/28/2011<br />Presented by Lynda Edner<br />22<br />
    40. 40. Gender Specific Issues While Enrolled<br />Women experience higher levels of:<br /><ul><li>Depression
    41. 41. Anxiety
    42. 42. Anger
    43. 43. Hostility
    44. 44. Conflict with others</li></ul>6/28/2011<br />Presented by Lynda Edner<br />23<br />
    45. 45. Gender Specific Issues While Enrolled<br /><ul><li>Loneliness
    46. 46. Sexual abuse
    47. 47. Trouble sleeping
    48. 48. Trouble with appetite or eating</li></ul>6/28/2011<br />Presented by Lynda Edner<br />24<br />
    49. 49. Gender Specific Issues While Enrolled<br /><ul><li>Poor concentration
    50. 50. Marital or couple problems
    51. 51. Problems with children affected by another’s substance abuse</li></ul>6/28/2011<br />Presented by Lynda Edner<br />25<br />
    52. 52. Successful Treatment<br />Successful completion can be achieved by:<br /><ul><li>Removing intimation factor
    53. 53. Allowing freedom of thought
    54. 54. Allowing honest exploration with male relationships</li></ul>6/28/2011<br />Presented by Lynda Edner<br />26<br />
    55. 55. Federal Government Initiatives<br /><ul><li>In the 1980’s cocaine and crack use increased among women
    56. 56. In 1984 the Federal Government created several social policy initiatives</li></ul>6/28/2011<br />Presented by Lynda Edner<br />27<br />
    57. 57. Special Funding<br /><ul><li>Block grants were created for special treatment designed for women
    58. 58. States were encourage to set aside funds to develop women-only treatment programs</li></ul>6/28/2011<br />Presented by Lynda Edner<br />28<br />
    59. 59. Special Funding<br /><ul><li>In response to problems with drug-exposed infants
    60. 60. Congress doubled the women’s set aside fund to 10%</li></ul>6/28/2011<br />Presented by Lynda Edner<br />29<br />
    61. 61. Sponsored Treatment Programs<br />Sponsoring Treatment Program Agencies<br /><ul><li>Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)
    62. 62. Residential Women and Children/Pregnant and Postpartum Women Demonstration Program</li></ul>6/28/2011<br />Presented by Lynda Edner<br />30<br />
    63. 63. Sponsoring Treatment Program Agencies<br /><ul><li>National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
    64. 64. Perinatal-20 Initiative</li></ul>6/28/2011<br />Presented by Lynda Edner<br />31<br />
    65. 65. Treatment Modalities<br /><ul><li>“Outpatient, (non-pharmacological), outpatient methadone
    66. 66. residential rehabilitation
    67. 67. hospital inpatient
    68. 68. criminal justice systems</li></ul>6/28/2011<br />Presented by Lynda Edner<br />32<br />
    69. 69. Treatment Modalities<br /><ul><li>Residential programs
    70. 70. Short-term (less than 30 days)
    71. 71. Long-term (more than 30 days)
    72. 72. Therapeutic community (TC).</li></ul>6/28/2011<br />Presented by Lynda Edner<br />33<br />
    73. 73. Outpatient Services<br /><ul><li>Two hours or more per day for three or more days per week
    74. 74. Criminal justice system included diversion programs, probation and “drug court"</li></ul>6/28/2011<br />Presented by Lynda Edner<br />34<br />
    75. 75. New Treatment Protocols<br />Survey results indicate:<br /><ul><li>"gender-sensitive" programs, or
    76. 76. "gender-responsive" programs</li></ul>6/28/2011<br />Presented by Lynda Edner<br />35<br />
    77. 77. Successful Programs<br />Successful programs offer and emphasize:<br /><ul><li>Women's psychosocial problems Pregnancy
    78. 78. Parenting
    79. 79. Mental health issues</li></ul>6/28/2011<br />Presented by Lynda Edner<br />36<br />
    80. 80. Successful Programs <br /><ul><li>Housing
    81. 81. Employment
    82. 82. History of trauma and victimization</li></ul>6/28/2011<br />Presented by Lynda Edner<br />37<br />
    83. 83. Treatment Outcomes<br />Programs which addressed women’s needs showed improved treatment outcomes:<br /><ul><li>From 28% in 1987 to 32% in 1998
    84. 84. 38% Increase in admissions from 1992-1998</li></ul>6/28/2011<br />Presented by Lynda Edner<br />38<br />
    85. 85. Treatment Outcomes<br /><ul><li>Long term residential saw a reduction in infant mortality and morbidity
    86. 86. Gender specific treatment programs had a positive association with post treatment abstinence</li></ul>6/28/2011<br />Presented by Lynda Edner<br />39<br />
    87. 87. Prevailing Theme in Literature Review<br />Gender Specific Program Should Integrate <br /><ul><li>mental health
    88. 88. substance abuse
    89. 89. trauma services</li></ul>6/28/2011<br />Presented by Lynda Edner<br />40<br />
    90. 90. Prevailing Theme in Literature Review<br /><ul><li>Gender Specific Program Should Integrate
    91. 91. culturally, relevant considerations
    92. 92. basic resources such as food, housing, employment, and transportation</li></ul>6/28/2011<br />Presented by Lynda Edner<br />41<br />
    93. 93. Summary<br />Those elements for retention and successful completion suggested the availability of integrated services, which integrated culturally and gender-specific concerns<br />6/28/2011<br />Presented by Lynda Edner<br />42<br />
    94. 94. Future Studies<br />Any future studies should examine the differences in women by ethnic group, by age, and geographic location for those seeking access to treatment facilities<br />6/28/2011<br />Presented by Lynda Edner<br />43<br />
    95. 95. Conclusion<br />In conclusion, any substance abuse treatment program that addresses the specific needs of women will improve treatment commitment, retention, and successful outcomes<br />6/28/2011<br />Presented by Lynda Edner<br />44<br />
    96. 96. References<br /> <br />Goldberg, M. (1995) Substance-abusing women: False stereotypes and real needs. Periodical National Association of Social Workers, Inc.<br />Grella, Christine, Greenwell, L. Journal of Behavior Services and Research, 2004, 31 (4), 367-383, 2004 National Counsel for Community Behavioral Healthcare<br />Jones, V. (2008) A comparison of anxiety levels among women in mixed gender substance abuse treatment facilities and women-only substance abuse treatment facilities Dissertation-School of Education Duquesne University <br />Newton, K, (2008), African American women's perceptions of and experiences with mandated substance abuse treatment: Implications for counselors Dissertations & Theses, Georgia State University <br />6/28/2011<br />Presented by Lynda Edner<br />45<br />
    97. 97. References<br />6/28/2011<br />Presented by Lynda Edner<br />46<br />U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) (2009) Center for Substance Abuse Treatment: Substance Abuse Treatment: Addressing the Specific Needs of Women TIP-51 <br />Wallen, J. (1992) A Comparison of Male and Female Clients in Substance Abuse Treatment, Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, Vol. 9. pp 243-248 Department of Family and Community Development, College of Human Ecology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland <br />

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