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Ms. Forrester’s Guide
to Research Papers
(Otherwise known as How to Write a Research Paper that Does Not
Drive Your Teache...
Table of Contents
Section Page Number
A Note from Ms. Forrester 4
Formatting 5
Formatting Titles Within Your Paper 6
Forma...
Table of Contents (cont.)
Section Page Number
Citing Your Sources: The Bible 22
Citing Your Sources: Books 23
Citing Your ...
A Note from Ms. Forrester
• This Guide is meant to help you with general formatting and
citation issues using Microsoft Wo...
Formatting
• In general, your research paper should meet the following
guidelines. Set up your formatting FIRST so that yo...
Formatting Titles Within Your Paper
Remember that when you refer to other works—even outside of your
citations—you need to...
Formatting: Setting the Margins
• The margins (space between the text and the edge of
the paper) for ALL sides—except for ...
Formatting:
Setting the Font and Font size
• In general, the font for your ENTIRE paper (all headings, page numbers,
text,...
Formatting:
Running Header/ Page Number
• Click on the “Insert” tab, then click on the “Page
Number” menu. Insert the page...
Formatting:
Running Header/ Page Number
• Click to the LEFT of the page number. Type in your
last name/family name, then i...
Formatting: Line Spacing
• You should adjust your line spacing AFTER you’ve formatted your
running header so that the line...
Formatting: Heading
• After you’ve set up your line spacing, you can begin the first page of your
paper.
• The first page ...
Introduction and Thesis Guidelines
13
Sometimes the biggest challenge in writing is getting started. The good
thing about ...
Introduction and Thesis Guidelines
• A well-written thesis has three parts:
• a topic
• an opinion – usually indicated by ...
When to Cite:
• Presenting someone else’s ideas and/or words as your own is
called plagiarism. It is a form of cheating. I...
Summarizing and Paraphrasing
•A summary gives an overview of a
passage. It is NOT replacing a few
key words and calling it...
Example:
Summarizing and Paraphrasing
• Look at this passage from News of a Kidnapping by
Gabriel García Márquez and then ...
Using Quotes
• Your paper is supposed to reflect YOUR thoughts and opinions, so
most of it should be in YOUR words. Howeve...
Using Quotes: Short Quotes
• Remember, all quotes need:
• lead-in
• quote
• analysis
• citation
• Look at the following ex...
Using Quotes: Block Quotes
• Remember, all quotes need:
• lead-in
• quote
• analysis
• citation – this is the one time in ...
In-text Citations and the Works
Cited Page
• Your sources need to be cited within the paper (in-text
citation) AND listed ...
Citing Your Sources:
The Bible
• In-Text Citation Format:
(Abbreviation for the book of the Bible. Chapter.Verse).
• Examp...
Citing Your Sources:
Book or Novel
23
• In-Text Citation Format: (Author’s Last Name Page Number).
• Example:
Surprisingly...
Citing Your Sources:
Chapters or Short Stories
24
• In-Text Citation Format: (Author’s Last Name Page Number).
• Example:
...
Citing Your Sources:
The Constitution and
Declaration of Independence
25
• The title of the United States Constitution or ...
Citing Your Sources:
Dictionary Definitions
26
• In-Text Citation Format: (“Word,” def. #).
• Example:
Interestingly, the ...
Citing Your Sources:
General Internet Sources
27
• In-Text Citation Format: (Author/Company, “Title of Web Page”).
• Examp...
Citing Your Sources:
Interviews
28
• In-Text Citation Format:
(Interviewee Last Name, Format Interview).
• Example:
Disney...
Citing Your Sources:
Movies
29
• In-Text Citation Format: Italicize the name of the film in your lead-
in. No parenthetica...
Citing Your Sources:
Newspaper and Magazine Articles.
30
• In-Text Citation Format: (Author’s Last Name, “Name of Article”...
Citing Your Sources:
Plays
31
• In-Text Citation Format: (Name of Play Act.Scene.Lines/Page
Number).
• Example:
Nick Botto...
Citing Your Sources: Poetry
32
• In-Text Citation Format: Reference “the poem” and poet in your lead-in, then cite
the lin...
Citing Your Sources:
Scientific/Scholarly Journals
33
• In-Text Citation Format (print): (Author’s Last Name Page Number)
...
Citing Your Sources: Television Shows
34
• In-Text Citation Format:
Italicize the name of the television series in your le...
Additional Resources
• Citation Machine Online Citation Generator:
http://www.citationmachine.net/
• EasyBib Online Citati...
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Ms. Forrester's Guide to Research Papers 2015

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A basic guide to MLA style for high school students

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Ms. Forrester's Guide to Research Papers 2015

  1. 1. Ms. Forrester’s Guide to Research Papers (Otherwise known as How to Write a Research Paper that Does Not Drive Your Teacher Crazy) 1 from “King Size Homer,” The Simpsons. Fox Television: 1995
  2. 2. Table of Contents Section Page Number A Note from Ms. Forrester 4 Formatting 5 Formatting Titles Within Your Paper 6 Formatting: Setting the Margins 7 Formatting: Setting the Font/Font Size 8 Formatting: Running Header/Page Number 9 Formatting: Line Spacing 11 Formatting: Heading 12 Introduction and Thesis Guidelines 13 When to Cite 15 Summarizing and Paraphrasing 16 Using Quotes 18 In-text Citations and the Works Cited Page 21 2
  3. 3. Table of Contents (cont.) Section Page Number Citing Your Sources: The Bible 22 Citing Your Sources: Books 23 Citing Your Sources: Chapters/Short Stories 24 Citing Your Sources: Constitution (U.S.) and the Declaration of Independence 25 Citing Your Sources: Dictionary Definitions 26 Citing Your Sources: General Internet Sources 27 Citing Your Sources: Interviews 28 Citing Your Sources: Movies 29 Citing Your Sources: Newspaper and Magazine Articles 30 Citing Your Sources: Plays 31 Citing Your Sources: Poetry 32 Citing Your Sources: Scientific/Scholarly Journals 33 Citing Your Sources: Television Shows 34 Additional Resources 35 3
  4. 4. A Note from Ms. Forrester • This Guide is meant to help you with general formatting and citation issues using Microsoft Word 2007 and newer. It is assumed that you have completed the “Research” part of your Research Paper and followed the usual prewriting steps on your own. • Please see your teacher and check the Additional Resources page before submitting a draft of your research paper. • As always, make sure you read and follow ALL of the given directions for all research assignments. Happy “Paper-ing”! --Ms. Forrester4
  5. 5. Formatting • In general, your research paper should meet the following guidelines. Set up your formatting FIRST so that you don’t have to worry about it later. Your teacher may have different requirements, so you should ask him/her in order to be sure: • Times New Roman size 12 font – black ink only on white paper (click here for instructions on how to set this up) • running header with the student’s last name, a single space, and the page number; this should be ½ inch from the top right edge of the paper. (click here for instructions on how to set this up) • 1-inch margins: that means that there should be one inch of space between the words and the edge of the paper on all sides, except for the running header (click here for instructions on how to set this up) • doubled line-spacing: twice the normal space between each line of print (click here for instructions on how to set this up) • a ½ inch of extra space at the beginning of the first line of each new paragraph—this is usually accomplished by pressing T once • no extra spaces between paragraphs or around the title of your paper 5
  6. 6. Formatting Titles Within Your Paper Remember that when you refer to other works—even outside of your citations—you need to format the title properly. 6 If you are discussing a(n): the title should be in: Example(s) album italics • Thriller by Michael Jackson episode of a television show “quotes” • “The Cushion Saturation” episode of The Big Bang Theory magazine, newspaper, or scientific journal italics • Sports Illustrated • American Journal of Physics magazine, newspaper, or a scientific article “quotes” • “Brooklyn Apartment Fire Leaves One Man Dead and Another Injured” in The New York Times movie italics • Wall-E • Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope novel or a play italics • To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee • Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare poem, short story, or a song “quotes” • “The Tell-Tale Heart” by Edgar Allan Poe • “The Lazy Song” by Bruno Mars specific page in a website “quotes” • “Arthritis Health Center” page on WebMd television series italics • The Fairly OddParents website italics • The Huffington Post • Buzzfeed
  7. 7. Formatting: Setting the Margins • The margins (space between the text and the edge of the paper) for ALL sides—except for the running header— should be 1 inch (2.54 cm). • In Microsoft Word, go to the “Page Layout” tab, then click on “Margins” and set margins to “Normal”. If you are still having trouble, go to “Custom Margins” at the bottom of the “Margins” menu to make further adjustments. 7
  8. 8. Formatting: Setting the Font and Font size • In general, the font for your ENTIRE paper (all headings, page numbers, text, quotes, Works Cited, etc.) is black Times New Roman size 12. Your font should not be in bold. You should ONLY use italics/underlining for appropriate titles or if the text you are quoting uses them. • Go to the “Home” tab and set font to Times New Roman size 12. 8
  9. 9. Formatting: Running Header/ Page Number • Click on the “Insert” tab, then click on the “Page Number” menu. Insert the page number at the top of the page using “Plain Number 3”. 9
  10. 10. Formatting: Running Header/ Page Number • Click to the LEFT of the page number. Type in your last name/family name, then insert ONE space. If you must, highlight the whole thing (name AND page number) and adjust to make sure that it is in Times New Roman size 12 font. 10
  11. 11. Formatting: Line Spacing • You should adjust your line spacing AFTER you’ve formatted your running header so that the line space settings do not interfere with the page numbering settings. • Right-click on the mouse and go to “Paragraph” • Make sure the Alignment is “Left,” the line spacing “Doubled,” with no extra spaces between paragraphs—the “Before” and “After” boxes should be set to 0, and the box underneath should be checked. 11
  12. 12. Formatting: Heading • After you’ve set up your line spacing, you can begin the first page of your paper. • The first page needs a special heading with your name, the teacher’s name, the class/period, and the DUE DATE (not the day you wrote the paper). • On the fifth line, center the title of your paper. There should be no extra space around the title, and the first letter of the important words should be capitalized. Do NOT boldface, italicize, underline, “quote,” or FULLY CAPITALIZE your paper’s title. 12
  13. 13. Introduction and Thesis Guidelines 13 Sometimes the biggest challenge in writing is getting started. The good thing about beginning your research paper early is that you don’t have to write your paper in the order that it is read. However, you should realize that a well-written Introduction can have a powerful effect on the entire essay. A well-written Introduction should: • get the reader’s attention, usually through a relevant general statement, an interesting fact, or a controversial (yet appropriate) opinion. • establish the writing style and logic that will be used within the paper. • state the main point of the paper (thesis). from “Brian the Bachelor,” Family Guy. Fox Television: 2005
  14. 14. Introduction and Thesis Guidelines • A well-written thesis has three parts: • a topic • an opinion – usually indicated by the words “should” or “must” • a reason/result for that opinion—in some subject areas, you might be asked to provide a three-part reason/result. o Example: The climate-change debate should be taught in high schools because it shows the interaction between science and society. o Example (with a three-part reason/result): Schools should reconsider assigning nightly homework, as it creates stress on students and their families, creates extra work for teachers, and does not seem to help students learn better. • Avoid the following: • stating the obvious or a fact as your thesis. There is no thesis without an opinion or viewpoint. • telling the reader what you will do in your paper, as opposed to just doing it. Do not begin with “This paper will argue that . . . “ or “In this paper I will write . . . ” This is your chance to ACTUALLY argue and ACTUALLY write. The pointless filler is pointless.  14
  15. 15. When to Cite: • Presenting someone else’s ideas and/or words as your own is called plagiarism. It is a form of cheating. In high school, it will get you punished. In college and graduate school, it may get you expelled. In the professional world, it can get you fired. • When preparing a research paper, you should read several sources carefully and come to your own conclusions. In your paper, you are explaining these conclusions, but you still must show the origins of your ideas. This is called citing your sources. You should cite your source when you: • summarize—give an overview or shortened form of a passage • paraphrase—put another writer’s ideas into your own words • quote—present someone else’s words within your paper. • If you are not sure if you should cite a part of your paper, cite the source anyway and then ask your teacher. 15
  16. 16. Summarizing and Paraphrasing •A summary gives an overview of a passage. It is NOT replacing a few key words and calling it something else. This is still plagiarism. You should look at the ideas, put them into your own words (which is called paraphrasing) and relate the ideas to the point you are trying to make. 16
  17. 17. Example: Summarizing and Paraphrasing • Look at this passage from News of a Kidnapping by Gabriel García Márquez and then look at the summary: 17 Passage Summary Father García Herreros’s message created an opening in the impasse. It seemed a miracle to Alberto Villamizar, for at the time he had been going over the names of possible mediators whose image and background might inspire more trust in Escobar. Rafael Pardo heard about the program and was disturbed by the idea that there could be a leak in his office. In any case, both he and Villamizar thought Father García Herreros might be the right person to mediate Escobar’s surrender. By the end of March, in fact, the letters going back and forth had nothing left to say. Worse yet: It was evident that Escobar was using Villamizar as a means of sending messages to the government and not giving anything in return. His last letter was nothing more than a list of interminable complaints—that the truce had not been broken but he had given his people permission to defend themselves against the security forces, that these forces were on the list of people to be killed, that if solutions were not forthcoming then indiscriminate attacks against police and the civilian population would increase. He complained that the prosecutor had discharged only two officers, when twenty had been accused by the Extraditables. Officials hoped that Father García Herreros could help them communicate with Pablo Escobar and rescue the kidnapping victims, but it soon became clear that Escobar was only interested in using the letters to complain, threaten, and make demands (García Márquez 230-231).
  18. 18. Using Quotes • Your paper is supposed to reflect YOUR thoughts and opinions, so most of it should be in YOUR words. However, sometimes it is necessary to reference someone else’s words in order to support your point. ONLY use quotes if you are trying to make a point about the language used. • Do NOT simply stick a quote in your paper and leave it to the reader to make sense of it. EVERY time you use a quote, you need to have the following: • lead-in: one or two sentences that introduce the quote, the person who says it, and the context of the quote. • the quote itself: short quotes are put in quotation marks, with a citation before the last period, but after the closing quotation marks. Long quotes (longer than 3 lines) do NOT use quotation marks. They are separated as a “block” and indented an extra inch. They are still cited at the end of the passage. • analysis: an explanation of how the quote supports the point you are trying to make. In general, your analysis should be about twice the length of the quote itself. 18
  19. 19. Using Quotes: Short Quotes • Remember, all quotes need: • lead-in • quote • analysis • citation • Look at the following example: • In Go Tell It on the Mountain, the character Florence remembers that her mother had always loved her brother best, even during prayer. Florence has only once heard her mother make a prayer that “demanded the protection of God more passionately for her daughter than she demanded it for her son” (Baldwin 68). Religion may aim to get people closer to God, but it can be affected by personal conflicts. Florence’s mother turns to God during hard times, and Florence tries to do the same. However, Florence’s negative feelings toward her mother still come to her mind, even though she is trying to follow her mother’s religious example. 19
  20. 20. Using Quotes: Block Quotes • Remember, all quotes need: • lead-in • quote • analysis • citation – this is the one time in which the citation comes AFTER the period/closing mark • Look at the following example: • Stephen King is one of the most successful writers in the world, but his book On Writing states that professional novelists should not worry too much about literary techniques: Book-buyers aren’t attracted, by and large, by the literary merits of a novel; book-buyers want a good story to take with them on the airplane, something that will first fascinate them, then pull them in and keep them turning the pages. This happens, I think, when readers recognize the people in a book, their behaviors, their surroundings, and their talk. When the reader hears strong echoes of his of her own life and beliefs, he or she is apt to become more invested in the story. (King 160) Even though King does not seem to care about “literary merits”, most of the common techniques studied in school will help writers meet the goals he sets. Figurative language such as metaphor and simile can “fascinate” a reader by presenting ideas and emotions in creative ways. Quality characterization will help readers connect with the characters by showing them who the characters are and what motivates them. Strong themes usually connect the ideas in books to real life struggles, and realistic conflicts can draw the reader in and get readers to compare book conflicts to their personal struggles. 20
  21. 21. In-text Citations and the Works Cited Page • Your sources need to be cited within the paper (in-text citation) AND listed on the Works Cited page. • The Works Cited page is a list of all the sources used within your paper. The sources must be listed alphabetically and follow the same text and spacing format as the rest of the paper. The Works Cited page does not have special numbering, but is usually not considered part of your paper’s page count. It is still double-spaced, with one-inch margins. • The Works Cited page begins on a separate page after your paper. If you need to insert a page for your Works Cited list, press C + E at the same time. This will create an automatic page break in your document. 21
  22. 22. Citing Your Sources: The Bible • In-Text Citation Format: (Abbreviation for the book of the Bible. Chapter.Verse). • Example: As a result of his hatred and murder, Cain and all his descendants were both cursed and protected by God (Gen. 4.11-15). • Works Cited Format: Title. First and Last Names of anyone who wrote Introduction or notes—if applicable. City: Publisher, Year. Type of Media. Version of the Bible. • Example: Holy Bible. New York, NY: American Bible Society, 1995. Print. Contemporary English Version. 22
  23. 23. Citing Your Sources: Book or Novel 23 • In-Text Citation Format: (Author’s Last Name Page Number). • Example: Surprisingly, the chaotic politics of Jamaica in the 1960s and 1970s influenced the creation of rap and hip-hop (Chang 23). • Works Cited Format: Author’s Last Name, First Name. Title of the Book. City: Publisher, Year. Type of Media. • Example: Chang, Jeff. Can’t Stop Won’t Stop: A History of the Hip-hop Generation. New York, NY: Picador/St. Martin’s Press, 2005. Print.
  24. 24. Citing Your Sources: Chapters or Short Stories 24 • In-Text Citation Format: (Author’s Last Name Page Number). • Example: The city of Omelas seems to be an ideal society, but the happiness of its people depends on making a single child suffer in prison (Le Guin 269-270). • Works Cited Format: Author’s Last Name, First Name. “Name of Chapter or Short Story.” Ed. Editor’s First and Last Name. Title of Book. City: Publisher, Year. Page Numbers. Type of Media. • Example: Le Guin, Ursula. “The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas.” Ed. Louis P. Pojman. The Moral Life: An Introductory Reader in Ethics and Literature. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2004. Print.
  25. 25. Citing Your Sources: The Constitution and Declaration of Independence 25 • The title of the United States Constitution or Declaration of Independence is always in plain text, with the important words capitalized. Do NOT boldface, italicize, underline, “quote,” or FULLY CAPITALIZE the title. • In-text citation depends on the part of the Constitution being used. In general, the format is as follows: • (Name of Document, Section). • Preamble: (U.S. Constitution, Preamble). • Articles: (U.S. Constitution, art. 1, sec. 3). • Amendments/Bill of Rights: (U.S. Constitution, Amendment V). – note that Amendments use ROMAN numerals. For example, if you wanted to reference the 13th Amendment, you would cite as follows: (U.S. Constitution, Amendment XIII). • The United State Constitution and the Declaration of Independence themselves do not need to be listed on your Works Cited page. However, any book, website, newspaper article, etc. ABOUT these documents must be cited and listed on the Works Cited page.
  26. 26. Citing Your Sources: Dictionary Definitions 26 • In-Text Citation Format: (“Word,” def. #). • Example: Interestingly, the tennis definition of love applies to the romantic relationship between Romeo Montague and Juliet Capulet because so many people lost everything as a result of it (“Love,” def. 8). • Works Cited Format: It is assumed that you will be using a web site for definitions. “Word.” Name of Website. Dictionary Company. Date of Publication. Web. Date of access • Example: "Love." Merriam-Webster.com. Merriam-Webster, n.d. Web. 18 July 2015.
  27. 27. Citing Your Sources: General Internet Sources 27 • In-Text Citation Format: (Author/Company, “Title of Web Page”). • Example: Although Serena Williams has dominated tennis for many years, she still faces public pressure because of her race and gender (Zirin, “Serena Williams is Today’s Muhammad Ali”). • Works Cited Format: Editor, author, or organization name (if available). “Web Page Title.” Name of Site. Company. Date of Publication (if available). Type of Media. Date of access. • Example: Zirin, Dave. “Serena Williams is Today’s Muhammad Ali.” Edge of Sports. 14 July 2015. Web. 19 July 2015.
  28. 28. Citing Your Sources: Interviews 28 • In-Text Citation Format: (Interviewee Last Name, Format Interview). • Example: Disney World seems geared for children, but adults have a greater appreciation of the fun and wonder there (Zambelli, Telephone Interview). • Works Cited Format: Interviewee Last Name, First Name. Format Interview. Date. • Example: Zambelli, Laura. Telephone Interview. 22 July 2015.
  29. 29. Citing Your Sources: Movies 29 • In-Text Citation Format: Italicize the name of the film in your lead- in. No parenthetical documentation needed. • Example: In Finding Nemo, Marlin learns that being over-protective of his son Nemo will prevent Nemo from living life to the fullest. • Works Cited Format: Name of Film. Dir. Director(s) Name. Perf. Star#1, Star #2. Production Company, Year. Format. • Example: Finding Nemo. Dir. Andrew Stanton, Lee Unkrich. Perf. Albert Brooks, Alexander Gould, Ellen DeGeneres. Pixar, 2003. DVD.
  30. 30. Citing Your Sources: Newspaper and Magazine Articles. 30 • In-Text Citation Format: (Author’s Last Name, “Name of Article”) • Example: Some may mock a child named Disani, but her name comes from her mother’s hope for a better life (Elliott, “Invisible Child”). • Works Cited Format: Author’s Last Name, First Name. “Name of Article.” Name of Newspaper or Magazine. Published date. Format. Access date (if Web). • Example: Elliott, Andrea. “Invisible Child.” The New York Times. 9 December 2013. Web. 22 July 2015.
  31. 31. Citing Your Sources: Plays 31 • In-Text Citation Format: (Name of Play Act.Scene.Lines/Page Number). • Example: Nick Bottom remained confused after his transformation, and felt that his “dream” was so wondrous that no one could explain or understand it (A Midsummer Night’s Dream 4.1. 216-225). • Works Cited Format: Playwright’s Last Name, First Name. Name of Play. Ed. Editor’s Name. Name of Book or Collection (if applicable). City of Publication: Publisher, Year. Format. • Example: Shakespeare, William. A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2010. Print.
  32. 32. Citing Your Sources: Poetry 32 • In-Text Citation Format: Reference “the poem” and poet in your lead-in, then cite the line numbers in parentheses (Line Numbers). • Example: Although the rhythm is bouncy and the poem seems cheerful, Silverstein’s description of the foolish and crying unicorns in “The Unicorn” changes the overall tone of the poem (37-40). • Works Cited Format (web): Poet’s Last Name, First Name. “Title of Poem”. Name of Web Site. Web. Access Date. • Example: Silverstein, Shel. “The Unicorn.” LyricsBox. Web. 23 July 2015. • Works Cited Format (Book): Poet’s Last Name, First Name. “Title of Poem”. Ed. Editor’s Name. Name of Book. City of Publication: Publisher, Year. Page Numbers. Format. • Example: Silverstein, Shel. “The Unicorn.” Where the Sidewalk Ends: 30th Anniversary Edition. New York, NY: Harper Collins Publisher, 2004. 76-77. Print.
  33. 33. Citing Your Sources: Scientific/Scholarly Journals 33 • In-Text Citation Format (print): (Author’s Last Name Page Number) or (Author’s Last Name, “Shortened Title of Article”). • Example: The New Horizons spacecraft alternates between “awake” and “hibernation” modes so that it can get a complete picture of the outer planets and moons in Earth’s Solar System (Riddle, “Far Out!”). • Works Cited Format: Author’s Last Name, First Name. “Name of Article.” Name of Journal. Volume.Issue (Year): Page Numbers or Name of Database. Format. Access Date (if Web article). • Example: Riddle, Bob. "Far out! Exploring the Outer Reaches of Our Solar System." Science Scope. Summer 2015: 92. Academic OneFile. Web. 26 Aug. 2015.
  34. 34. Citing Your Sources: Television Shows 34 • In-Text Citation Format: Italicize the name of the television series in your lead-in (“ Name of Episode”). • Example: Even popular sitcoms such as Everybody Loves Raymond acknowledge that teachers can become frustrated and bitter when students bring their personal dramas into the classroom (“Ally’s F”). • Works Cited Format: “Episode Title.” Television Series Name. Network. Date aired. Television. • Example: “Ally’s F.” Everybody Loves Raymond. CBS. 18 October 2004. Television.
  35. 35. Additional Resources • Citation Machine Online Citation Generator: http://www.citationmachine.net/ • EasyBib Online Citation Generator: http://www.easybib.com/ • The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 7th Edition by the Modern Language Association of America • Purdue University Online Writing Lab: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/01/ • Thesis Statement Generator and Guidelines: https://awc.ashford.edu/writing-tools-thesis-generator.html 35

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