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Indigenous health and education


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Indigenous health and education

  1. 1. Week 10-Indigenous Health and Education By Amy Delaney and Sandy Gauci
  2. 2. Acknowledgement of CountryBefore we begin the proceedings, we would like to respectfully acknowledge the traditional owners of this land.
  3. 3. Poor education contributes to poor health and poor health contributes to poor education- a vicious circle(Thomson, 2003)
  4. 4. The Facts Indigenous attendance at school overall lower Indigenous peoples life expectancy is 20 years less than that of non-Indigenous people. The infant mortality rates are 13.6 times higher than non- Indigenous people. The highest cause of death for Indigenous people is disease of the circulatory system such as stroke and heart disease 3.7% of all deaths amongst Indigenous people is the result of suicide which 2.4% higher than non-Indigenous people The prevalence of endocrine diseases, especially diabetes, is 8.3 times higher than non-Indigenous people(Department of Health and Ageing, 2009) & (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2006).
  5. 5. Lower Life Expectancy 11.5 years difference for males 10 years difference for females(Summary of Australian Indigenous Health, 2012)
  6. 6. Skills for better health Education gives students the knowledge and skills needed to achieve a full and healthy life Skills in developing relationships Skills to deal with conflict Practical skills such as budgeting and cooking(Thomson, 2003)
  7. 7. Health and the Curriculum It is important for students to learn about health concepts at school so they can make healthy and active lifestyle decisions. In Health and Physical Education students learn about vital concepts related to growth and development, physical activity and sport, food preparation and nutrition, mental health, sexuality, hygiene, communicable disease, relationships, drugs, personal safety and protective behaviours, sun protection, first aid and injury prevention.(Curriculum Council, 1998)
  8. 8. Curriculum Links Health & Physical Education Learning Outcomes KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDINGS Students know and understand health and physical activity concepts that enable informed decisions for a healthy, active lifestyle. ATTITUDES AND VALUES Students exhibit attitudes and values that promote personal, family and community health, and participation in physical activity. SELF-MANAGEMENT SKILLS Students demonstrate self-management skills which enable them to make informed decisions for healthy, active lifestyles. INTERPERSONAL SKILLS Students demonstrate the interpersonal skills necessary for effective relationships and healthy, active lifestyles.(Curriculum Council, 1998)
  9. 9. Ear Disease and Hearing Loss ‘Ear disease is a significant health issue for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities and is the leading cause of hearing loss’(Ear Health, n.d.)
  10. 10. Otitis Media The infection that is most damaging to Indigenous students education is most likely otitus media, an inflammation or infection of the middle ear. Many children get Otitis Media but Indigenous children are 10 times more likely to get it than non-Indigenous children. As many as eight out of ten Indigenous children could have a Otitis media and hearing loss at some point during the school year.(Otitis Media, 2012)
  11. 11. Acute Otitis Media Acute otitis media (AOM) is acute inflammation of the middle ear and tympanic membrane. Non-Indigenous children with AOM it is characterised by an abrupt onset of pain, fever and irritability. For Indigenous children, especially those in remote areas it is very different. The inflammation of the ear can start just weeks after birth and often proceed to perforation without strong evidence of pain, fever and irritability.(Thomson, 2003)
  12. 12. Chronic Otitus Media Chronic Otitus Media is persistent inflammation of the middle of the ear, which can occur with or with out perforation as chronic suppurative otitus media or as otitus media with effusion which is known as ear glue.(Thomson, 2003)
  13. 13. What is the result? Hearing Loss These ear diseases may contribute to long-term or permanent hearing loss. Some have estimated that between 30% to 80% of Indigenous school aged children suffer hearing loss. The onset of hearing loss in infants has a significant effect on speech and language development. If a child has chronic or recurrent otitus media and results in hearing loss within the first two years of their life which is a critical period of child development, it is very likely to limit that child’s educational achievements.(Thomson, 2003)
  14. 14. In the classroom Hearing loss effects learning Makes it hard for students to focus and maintain attention Language of the class may be hard to understand There can be a delay in the development of speaking and listening skills Following long instructions can be hard Students being able to sound out words and remember which sounds go with which letters may not develop properly Communication can be hard which can have serious affects on behaviour and relationships Aboriginal students with hearing loss are often unwilling to participate in classroom activities as they can misunderstand what is expected of them(Harrison, 2011)
  15. 15. What can teachers do to help If a teacher has students who are suffering from hearing loss they can- Summarise and repeat instructions Use more detail when explaining what is happening Encourage students to help each other Having students sit closer to the teacher so that they are able to see the teacher’s expressions and lips much more clearly(Harrison, 2011)
  16. 16. Contributing factors of ear disease and other diseases Poor hygiene Over crowded housing Poor nutrition A change needs to be made in their housing, hygiene, nutrition and access to primary health care. Campaigns such as ‘no germs on me’ are aimed at young Indigenous Australians to improve their hygiene(Harrison, 2011)
  17. 17. Absenteeism There are many diseases, illnesses and injuries Indigenous children are more prone to having which would prevent them from attending school Gastrointestinal Disease Skin Infections Injury and Self Harm(Patton & Moon, 2000)
  18. 18. Gastrointestinal Disease Gastrointestinal Disease is a huge problem for many young Indigenous children and infants which causes diarrhoea and parasitic infections. It is contracted from food and water being contaminated by pathogenic microorganisms from faeces. This is often due to the unhygienic and overcrowded living conditions.(Patton & Moon, 2000)
  19. 19. Skin Infections Skin infections tend to be more common amongst Indigenous children rather than non- Indigenous children and is mainly a result of living conditions. Common skin infections that affect Indigenous Australians are scabies, pyoderma, fungal infections and other infections caused by bacteria.(Patton & Moon, 2000)
  20. 20. Injury and Self Harm The rate of injury and self harm amongst Indigenous Australians is significantly higher than the Australian population as a whole. Dangerous behaviours for injury and suicide for Aboriginal school aged students include- Drug and illicit substance use Violence and anti-social behaviour Early sexual activity Deliberate self-harm Poor physical and mental health Victimisation and trauma(Patton & Moon, 2000)
  21. 21. Social and Emotional Wellbeing Social and emotional wellbeing of an Indigenous child can have a significant impact on their education. Lack of social and emotional wellbeing in young Indigenous children and infants can cause impairments in cognitive and language functions and also physical and psychological development It can also contribute to absenteeism, limited assertiveness and poor learning outcomes.(Patton & Moon, 2000)