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The first migration and agricultural revolution

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The first migration and agricultural revolution

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The first migration and agricultural revolution

  1. 1. The Ancient World Overview
  2. 2. There is still argument among the experts about when early humans first appeared and then spread to different parts of the world. Early Human Migration “Out of Africa”
  3. 3. Most historians currently favour an explanation known as the ‘Out of Africa’ theory. This theory states that early humans originally appeared in Africa about 200 000 years ago. Early Human Migration “Out of Africa”
  4. 4. About 100 000 years ago, migrating groups left Africa in waves, initially arriving in the Middle East. These waves of migration continued until around 12 000 years ago. Early Human Migration “Out of Africa”
  5. 5. The Agricultural Revolution
  6. 6. The Agricultural Revolution The shift from hunter gathering to agriculture is one of the most important developments in the history of humanity. The agricultural revolution was a global event because it happened in parallel developments in many parts of the world, although at slightly different times. It is viewed as the beginning of civilisation.
  7. 7. Core regions of the development of agriculture were in: - the Fertile Crescent in the Middle East (circa* 10,000 BCE) - China (circa 9,000 BCE) - New Guinea (circa 8,000 – 6,000 BCE) - South and Central America (circa 4,000 BCE).
  8. 8. Agriculture revolutionised the way people interacted with other species, which revolutionised the way people interacted with each other as well. It made civilisation possible as people started living in larger communities which grew into towns and then eventually into complex city states.
  9. 9. As agriculture became more and more widespread, people began to accumulate surpluses of food, meaning that people grew more than they consumed. This resulted in the first commerce or trade as people could then trade or swap their surplus crops with their neighbours for the items they needed. This eventually lead to the invention of writing.
  10. 10. We cannot be certain why and how some groups of Paleolithic hunter gatherer peoples began adopting new ways of producing food and other necessities of life by cultivating plants and domesticating animals because there are no written records before this transition. It is thought perhaps climatic changes associated with the retreat of the glaciers at the end of the last Ice Age (about 12,000 B.C.), may have played an important role.
  11. 11. The emergence of agriculture also had a major environmental impact on the earth. The most important has been deforestation in order to make space for crops and livestock.
  12. 12. There is also strong evidence that land clearing for agriculture, the farming of animals and the development of rice paddies released significant amounts of greenhouse gasses (methane and CO2).

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