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Macromolecules
How life works.
Macromolecules
• Macromolecules are found in
– The food you eat
– The silk a spider makes
– The muscles in your body
• “Ma...
Types of macromolecules
• Carbohydrates
• Lipids
• Proteins
• Nucleic Acids
Carbohydrates
• Source of energy
– Gained through food you eat
– Energy is changed in our bodies to energy
we can use
• Fo...
Carbohydrates
• Simple and complex sugars
– Disaccharide (pronounced: “die-sack-a-
ride”)
• Made of 2 sugars
• Table sugar...
Lipids
• Fats
– Store huge amounts of energy
– Saturated
• Solid at room temperature like butter
– Unsaturated
• Liquid at...
Proteins
• Have many different shapes and jobs
• The function of the protein is based
on its shape
– Examples: hair, finge...
Nucleic (“new-clay-ick”) Acids
• DNA is a nucleic acid
– Carries all instructions for building an
organism
– In every cell...
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Macromolecules

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Macromolecules

  1. 1. Macromolecules How life works.
  2. 2. Macromolecules • Macromolecules are found in – The food you eat – The silk a spider makes – The muscles in your body • “Macro” means large molecules
  3. 3. Types of macromolecules • Carbohydrates • Lipids • Proteins • Nucleic Acids
  4. 4. Carbohydrates • Source of energy – Gained through food you eat – Energy is changed in our bodies to energy we can use • Form building materials – Chitin (pronounced “kite-in”) in insects forms their shell – Cellulose in plants forms the cell wall which allows the plant to stand up without a skeleton
  5. 5. Carbohydrates • Simple and complex sugars – Disaccharide (pronounced: “die-sack-a- ride”) • Made of 2 sugars • Table sugar is an example (sucrose) – Complex sugars • Starch found in plants like potatoes
  6. 6. Lipids • Fats – Store huge amounts of energy – Saturated • Solid at room temperature like butter – Unsaturated • Liquid at room temperature like vegetable oil • Fats are hydrophobic (literally meaning “afraid of water”) – Fats don’t mix with water
  7. 7. Proteins • Have many different shapes and jobs • The function of the protein is based on its shape – Examples: hair, fingernails, enzymes that help break down food in your stomach • Enzymes – Make chemical reactions happen faster • Made of amino (“a-me-no”) acids
  8. 8. Nucleic (“new-clay-ick”) Acids • DNA is a nucleic acid – Carries all instructions for building an organism – In every cell of the organism – Passed from parent to offspring – Found in the nucleus – Made of nucleotides (“new-clee-oh- tides”)

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