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Content Area 2 part I - Ancient Near East & Egypt


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Content Area 2 part I - Ancient Near East & Egypt

  1. 1. Content Area 2: Ancient Mediterranean 3500 BCE – 300 CE PART ONE APAH – Valenzuela 36 works
  2. 2. Sub-Units: a. Ancient Near East (Stokstad Ch. 2) b. Ancient Egypt (Stokstad Ch. 3) c. Aegean / Ancient Greek (Stokstad Ch. 4 & 5) d. Etruscan / Ancient Roman (Stokstad Ch. 6) You will have two separate unit tests - one unit test for A & B, and another for C & D.
  3. 3. Part I Art of the Ancient Near East Stokstad Chapter 2 Required Images from AP: 6
  4. 4. Mesopotamian Periods Sumerian (3500-2340 BCE) Akkadian (2340-2180 BCE) Babylonian (1792-1750 BCE) Hittie (1600- 1200 BCE) Assyrian (1000 - 612 BCE) Hint to remember order in which these societies were in power is: SABHAP (and to differentiate between Akkadian and Assyrian, I remember the letter k comes before s.
  5. 5. Below is a tablet that has proto- cuneiform characters explaining recording the allocation of beer. It is one of the oldest - dating at around 3000BCE
  6. 6. Ljubljana Marshes Wheel - dated at 3150 BCE (making it 5150 years old) The first use of the wheel was thought to be a pottery wheel
  7. 7. Left: Victory Stele of Naram Sin Right: Ashurnasirpal lion hunting Panel Below: Colossal statue of a winged lion from the North- West Palace of Ashurnasirpal II
  8. 8. Head of an Akkadian Ruler; Bronze, c. 2300- 2200 BCE. 15” high, National Museum of Iraq, Baghdad
  9. 9. Face of A Woman, known as The Warka Head --found in Uruk 3300-3000 BCE Marble approx 8” Stolen & recovered 2003
  10. 10. Victory Stele of Naram Sin Sippar. Found at Susa c.2220-2184 BCE Limestone Height: 6’6” Mussee du Louvre, Paris.
  11. 11. IN SUMMARY: Art of the Ancient Near East included the union of animal and human elements invention of writing (cuneiform) introduction of iconography & written law/order hierarchy of scale use of mud-brick instead of stone (availability) Entrance into cities was important (gates & lamassu figures) Rulers were seen as the flesh of the gods, and many areas were in constant flux of control The use of coins as money with miniature portraits of rulers were minted Trade and commerce were important in the spread of cultures; art reflects a variety of cultures in Mesopotamia
  12. 12. Part II Art of Ancient Egypt Stokstad Chapter 3 Required images from AP: 9
  13. 13. Ancient Egyptians worshipped over 1400 different Gods and Goddesses. Here are some of the most common and how they most commonly appeared in art.
  14. 14. Old Kingdom Begins with the unification of the country (Upper, Middle and Lower Egypt) under King Narmer. 2649 - 2150 BCE (Metropolitan Museum of Art Timeline)
  15. 15. Step Pyramid built by king Djoser Third Dynasty (2686 - 2613 BCE The earliest pyramid that emerged Was the largest structure of its time
  16. 16. Yes… I think I should get some sleep now!
  17. 17. Khufu & His Pyramid: The Beginning
  18. 18. Khafre - Son of Khufu
  19. 19. Beard Fragment from the Great Sphinx Held in the British Museum in London.
  20. 20. Menkaura the end of an era (also spelled Menkaure)
  21. 21. Kneeling Statue of Hatshepsut 18th Dynasty -New Kingdom (ca. 1479–1458 B.C.E.) red granite
  22. 22. Egyptian Key Ideas • Egyptian art spans 3000 years • Elaborate funerary practices = built MASTABAS, PYRAMIDS, and rock-cut TOMBS in sacred imperial areas of Egypt • Egyptian figures: broad frontal shoulders with head, torso, and legs in profile (except for the Amarna period - Akhenaten was a strange guy… gumby figures?!?) • Old Kingdom figures: rigid stance and little facial expression • Middle Kingdom figures: more relaxed body and emotional faces • New Kingdom figures: rounded and elongated figures • Order and Stability – a conservative formula of representation. • Worship the Pharaoh as a divine being who establishes Ma’at (balance) between the human world and the gods (a polytheistic religion- multiple gods). • Media: stone, paint, gold + gems, and papyrus (a tall aquatic plant whose fiber is used as a writing surface) • Most of our resources come from tombs where the treasures were held as items for passage of the dead. • Egyptians established the temple format with columns that will be copied and transformed by the Greeks and Romans. CONTENT, CONTEXT, FORM, FUNCTION!!! Take note on these 4 aspects!
  23. 23. Review for Test II Ancient Near East & Ancient Egypt
  24. 24. • ENDURING UNDERSTANDING 2-1. Artistic traditions of the ancient Near East and dynastic Egypt focused on representing royal figures and divinities and on the function of funerary and palatial complexes within their cultural contexts. Works of art illustrate the active exchange of ideas and reception of artistic styles among the Mediterranean cultures and the subsequent influence on the classical world. • Essential Knowledge 2-1a. The art of the ancient Near East (present-day Iraq, Syria, Iran, Turkey, Lebanon, Israel, Palestine, Jordan, and Cyprus, from 3500 to 330 B.C.E.) is associated with successive city-states and cultural powers: Sumerian, Akkadian, Neo-Sumerian and Babylonian, Assyrian, Neo-Babylonian, and Persian. The art of dynastic Egypt (present-day Egypt and Sudan, from 3000 to 30 B.C.E.) generally includes coverage of predynastic Egypt and Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms. The Amarna period (New Kingdom) was also important because of its cultural reform and stylistic revolution. • Essential Knowledge 2-1b. The study of artistic innovations and conventions developed in the ancient Near East and dynastic Egypt (facilitated by recorded information from the time) provides a foundation for comparative understanding of subsequent artistic traditions within the region and beyond.
  25. 25. • ENDURING UNDERSTANDING 2-2. Religion plays a significant role in the art and architecture of the ancient Near East, with cosmology guiding representation of deities and kings who themselves assume divine attributes. • Essential Knowledge 2-2a. Artists created fully developed, formal types, including sculptures of human figures interacting with gods and stylistic conventions representing the human form with a combined profile and three-quarter view. In these combinations, important figures are set apart using a hierarchical scale or • by dividing the compositions into horizontal sections or registers, which provide significant early examples of historical narratives. • Essential Knowledge 2-2b. Architectural representations include towering ziggurats that provide monumental settings for the worship of many deities, as well as heavily fortified palaces that increased in opulence over the centuries, proclaiming the power and authority of rulers.
  26. 26. • ENDURING UNDERSTANDING 2-3. The art of dynastic Egypt embodies a sense of permanence. It was created for eternity in the service of a culture that focused on preserving a cycle of rebirth. • ▶ Essential Knowledge 2-3a. The culture of dynastic Egypt represents an elaborate funerary sect whose devotees created numerous ka statues (to house the ka, or spirit, after death), artifacts, decorations, and furnishings for tombs. Egyptian art incorporates mythological and religious symbolism, often centered on the cult of the sun. Development of monumental stone architecture culminated with the pyramids and with innovative designs for rock-cut tombs and pylon (massive sloped gateway) temples, each demonstrating the importance of the pharaoh — a god-king with absolute power, descended directly from the sun god. The Egyptian architectural construction of the clerestory is particularly important for the history of architecture. • ▶ Essential Knowledge 2-3b. Representations of humans make clear distinctions between the deified pharaoh and people in lower classes, using representational and stylistic cues such as hierarchical proportion and idealization versus naturalism. Approaches to portraiture depend on a figure’s rank in society. The artistic canon of dynastic Egypt, with strict conventions of representation, use of materials, and treatment of forms, was followed for many centuries with only short-lived periods of experimentation and deviation. Innovations in art and architecture tended to occur within the basic and established scheme.