Unit 7 section 2 lesson 3 the rights revolution expands
The Rights Revolution ExpandsUnit 6, Section 2, Lesson 3
Objectives • Explain how the Latino population grew after World War I. • Analyze the Latino and Native American rights movements of the 1960s and 1970s. • Describe the expansion of rights for consumers and the disabled.
Terms and People• Cesar Chavez − an influential Latino activist who fought for farm laborers’ rights• migrant farmworker − a worker who moved from one place to another to pick crops• Chicano movement − a Mexican-American effort for social and political equality• AIM − the American Indian Movement, which addressed civil rights issues for Native Americans• Japanese American Citizens League- worked for decades to fight for Japanese American’s Civil Rights.
How did the rights movements of the1960s and 1970s expand rights fordiverse groups of Americans?Latinos and Native Americans worked to securetheir civil rights in the 1960s and 1970s.Activists also worked to expand the rights ofconsumers and people with disabilities.
Judith Baca, the daughter of Mexicanimmigrants, taught art in public schools in arough Los Angeles neighborhood in theearly 1970s. Between her classes, shewatched young Latinos hanging out in parksand writing graffiti on the walls. Intriguedby the kids’ graffiti, she developed the ideaof channeling their creative energy intopainting murals. Her idea spread to otherU.S. cities, where kids used murals todocument and celebrate Latino culture andhistory. Their work was just one part of agrowing movement that sought to educate,respect, and politically organize AmericanLatinos.A famous Mexican muralist, Diego Rivera.He is depicted in many murals, mostnotably through the Philadelphia MuralArts Program.
Three factors created a steady stream of LatinAmerican immigrants to the United States.1 After World War I, the United States limited immigration from Europe.2 Beginning with World War II, the U.S. experienced a growing demand for inexpensive labor.3 At the same time, Latin American countries had increasing populations and shrinking job opportunities.
Beginning in 1942, Mexican immigrants came to theUnited States under the farmhand program, whichgranted them temporary guest-worker status.These Latino farmworkers played animportant role inU.S. agricultureduring and afterWorld War II.
In 1965, the Immigration and Nationality ActAmendments made Latino immigration easier.The U.S. Latinopopulation hasgrown steadilyever since.
Like other minorities,Latinos fought for equal rights.Migrant farmworkers workedlong hours in poor conditions forlow pay.Cesar Chavez organized theseworkers to form theUnited Farm Workers union,or UFW.
The Chicano Movement worked to promoteLatino culture and political strength.The movement had several main goals. • inclusion of Latino heritage in education • reduce poverty and improve opportunities for Latinos • greater Latino representation at all levels of government
Native American activism also grew inthe 1960s and 1970s.The National Indian The American IndianYouth Council Movement (AIM)(NIYC) first formed started as an activistto address native group for urban Nativefishing rights and Americans and soonlater expanded into became involved withbroad civil rights land, legal, and self-issues. government issues.
In February 1973,AIM occupied the • Federal authoritiesvillage of besieged the village.Wounded Knee, • Gunfire killed two AIMSouth Dakota, members.site of an 1890massacre of After the standoff, theSioux. government promised to reexamine native treaty rights.
Occupation of Alcatraz• Fall of 1969• Thousands of American Indians occupied the abandoned remains of Alcatraz, the federal penitentiary that housed Americas most notorious criminals until closing in 1963.• The occupiers held the island for nearly eighteen months.• It was an effort to “restore the dignity of the more than 554 American Indian nations in the United States.”
• More than 5,600 American Indians joined the occupation-some for all eighteen months and some for just part of a day.• American Indians, like many people of color in that era, were fed up with the status quo.• The annual household income of an American Indian family was $1,500-one-fourth the national average.• Their life expectancy was 44 when other Americans could expect to reach 65.
Native American activism resulted infavorable legal changes.The Indian Self-Determination Act The tribes also wonof 1975 granted legal battles overtribes greater land, mineral, andcontrol over water rights.resources on theirreservations.
Reformers pushed for measures toprotect consumers and workers. • Ralph Nader formed several consumer advocacy groups to ensure that the products people buy are safe. • The Nixon administration proposed regulations for safety in the workplace.
By the 1970s, Americans with disabilitieswere gaining more rights.• People with physical and mental disabilities participated in the Special Olympics.• The government passed laws guaranteeing people with disabilities equal access to education.