Objectives • Explain why Japan decided to attack Pearl Harbor. • Describe the attack on Pearl Harbor and how America immediately responded. • Outline how the United States mobilized for war after the attack on Pearl Harbor.
Terms and People• Hideki Tojo − Japanese general and prime minister during World War II• Pearl Harbor − site in Hawaii of the United States Navy’s main Pacific base• WAC − Women’s Army Corps; volunteer organization that provided clerical workers, truck drivers, instructors, and lab technicians for the army• Embargo- an order of a government prohibiting the movement of merchant ships into or out of its ports.• Fleet – a large group of naval ships moving together
How did the United States react to the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor?A surprise attack on the Americannaval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii,ended the debate betweenisolationists and interventionists.The United States was going to war.
Tensions mounted as Japan continued its marchinto new lands, gaining territory and valuablenatural resources. Angered byRoosevelt condemned AmericanJapanese aggression. interference, Prime Minister Hideki TojoHe worked to slow decided it was timeJapan’s expansion to eliminate the U.S.with an embargo. presence in the Pacific.
NegotiationsSeptember 6, 1941 Japanese leaders had meeting; if US would not lift embargo in two months they would attackPlanned to attack: Dutch Controlled Indies British controlled Malaya American Controlled Philippines Pearl HarborLetter from Roosevelt 12/6
On December 7, 1941, Japanese fighterpilots attacked the American naval base atPearl Harbor, Hawaii.
December 7, 1941People saw the Japanese coming but thought nothing of itJapanese attacked Pearl Harbor in two waves of attack; Wave 1: 7:55 a.m. Hawaiian Time Wave 2: 8:50 a.m. Hawaiian TimeJapanese had 6 carriers, around 420 Planes 183 took charge of the first wave of attacks
Damage at Pearl Harbor The United States suffered terrible losses.
AftermathThe attack was a great, but not total, success.Because…. U.S. Pacific Fleet was shattered, buts its aircraft carriers (not in port at the time of the attack) were still afloat and Pearl Harbor was surprisingly intact. The fuel storage areas, and submarine base suffered no more than slight damage. More importantly, the American people rallied together with a total commitment to victory over Japan and her Axis partners.
Telegraph Report “Brilliant success was achieved for our country through theFrom: Adm. Nagumo splendid efforts of you men. But we still have a great way To: Pearl Harbor to go. After this victory we must tighten the straps of ourAttack Force Date: 7 Dec. 1941 helmets and go onward, determined to continue our fight until the final goal has been won.”
After the Japan’s allies,attack, the Germany andUnited States Italy, thendeclared war declared waron Japan. on the United States.
A wave of patriotism swept the United Statesfollowing the attack. • Americans joined the military, the Red Cross, and other organizations. • Women responded by joining the Women’s Army Corps, Army Nurse Corps, and other military auxiliaries. • Americans took new jobs making weapons and supplies that supported the war effort.
The peacetimeeconomy soonshifted to awartimeeconomy.Companies thatonce producedconsumer goodsmobilized to buildships, planes, andtanks.
The moneypoured intodefensespendingfinally endedthe GreatDepression.Americanworkers couldonce again findjobs.
In 1944, American production levels were double thoseof all the Axis nations combined.This “production miracle” gave the Allies a crucialadvantage.
National Geographic Use National Geographics Interactive Pearl Harbor Website in order to fill in the timeline provided. You may use colored pencil or marker to fill out the waves of attack. Once on the site, click multimedia map and timeline. Read through the into, then press begin. When you click on a specific time of day, you may need to click "Full Story" to access more information.