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Soc studies #23 industrial revolution

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Industrial Revolution in the US

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Soc studies #23 industrial revolution

  1. 1. The INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION in AMERICA
  2. 2. 1. Capital – money for investments 2. Factory system – a system that brings manufacturing steps together in one place 3. Free enterprise – the freedom of private business to compete for profits, with little government regulation 4. Technology – the use of scientific discoveries for practical uses; tools used for production 5. Patent – a document that gives an inventor legal rights to his or her invention 6. Interchangeable parts – pieces that can be made in large quantities to replace identical pieces
  3. 3. 7. Commerce - the activity of buying and selling, especially on a large scale 8. Textiles – items made of cloth 9. Mass production – the making of large numbers of identical goods 10. Trade union – an organization of workers with the same skills 11. Strike – the refusal of workers to do their job until employers meet their demands 12. Entrepreneur - a person who takes a financial risk to organize and operate a business
  4. 4. 13. Canal – an artificial waterway 14. Steam engine - an engine that uses the condensation of steam to generate power 15. Telegraph - a device for transmitting messages from a distance along a wire
  5. 5. • During the War of 1812, European goods became scarce • Americans began to buy from American manufacturers; they realized they had relied too heavily on foreign goods • By the end of the war American businesses were ready to lead the U. S. into a period of industrial and economic growth
  6. 6. • The Industrial Revolution was a period of rapid growth in the use of machines in manufacturing. It began in Europe in the mid-1700s and spread to the U.S. by 1800.
  7. 7. IMPORTANT ADVANCES • 1781 – Scottish inventor James Watt improved on the steam engine • 1769 – British entrepreneur Richard Arkwright invented a spinning machine called a water frame, which could produce dozens of cotton threads at the same time. This lowered the cost of cotton cloth and increased textile production
  8. 8. • 1787 – Philadelphia clockmaker John Fitch built a steamboat called Perseverance, which he demonstrated for delegates of the Constitutional Convention as it navigated the Delaware River
  9. 9. • To keep their technology secret, Britain had passed laws to keep their machinery and their mechanics from leaving the country. • In 1789, British mechanic Samuel Slater left Britain after memorizing Richard Arkwright’s design for textile mill machines. - With Moses Brown and others, Slater opened a mill in Rhode Island in 1793, and another in 1798
  10. 10. • 1790 – the U.S. government passed the Patent Act of 1790, the first patent law in the country, to protect the rights of those who developed “useful and important inventions”
  11. 11. • 1793 – Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin, a machine that removed seeds from cotton fiber. This machine allowed one worker to clean cotton as fast as 50 working by hand. - In 1798, the U.S. government was worried about war. Whitney proposed a plan for mass production of guns - He also came up with the idea for interchangeable parts, making machines easier to assemble, and broken parts easier to replace
  12. 12. • 1803 – Robert Fulton tested the first full-sized commercial steamboat, the Clermont, in the U.S. - Having more power than Fitch’s Perseverance, The Clermont traveled against the current of the Hudson River with ease - Demand for steamboat service rose
  13. 13. • 1814 – New England entrepreneur Francis Cabot Lowell opened his first textile mill in Massachusetts - He developed the Lowell System, a production method that included a loom that could spin thread and weave cloth at the same time - The machines were operated by young girls who had left family farms to work in the factory - These “Mill Girls” lived in boardinghouses near the mill, and worked up to 14 hours a day. - In 1822, Lowell opened a larger mill in a town that would later be named Lowell, Massachusetts
  14. 14. • 1817 – New York Governor DeWitt Clinton ensured construction of the Erie Canal, linking New York with the Great Lakes - Clinton had surveyed the route and got financial and political support for the project - The Erie Canal was completed in 1825
  15. 15. • 1832 – Samuel Morse invented the telegraph, which revolutionized long-distance communication - Around 1837, Morse and his partner Alfred Vail developed Morse Code, a method of transmitting information using signals of light or sound
  16. 16. EFFECTS OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN THE U.S. The presence of factories expanded, leading to the growth of towns and cities In heavily populated cities, with no sewers to carry factory and animal waste away, disease spread quickly. In 1793, a yellow fever epidemic in Philadelphia killed thousands of people City life grew to include libraries, museums, and shops not found in rural communities Canals united the Eastern and Midwestern parts of the U.S. Communicating long distances quickly became possible The expansion of industrialization in the North and concentration on agriculture in the South caused the two regions to develop significant economic and cultural differences

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