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Soc studies #21 thomas jefferson


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Thomas Jefferson Presidency

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Soc studies #21 thomas jefferson

  2. 2. 1. Incumbent – currently in office 2. Judicial review – the right of the Supreme Court to determine if a law violates the Constitution 3. Customs duties – taxes on foreign imported goods 4. Frontiersman - a man living in the region between settled and unsettled country 5. Embargo – an order that prohibits trade with another country 6. Impressment – the practice of forcing people to serve in the army or navy
  3. 3. • The election of 1800 was full of contention (heated disagreement) • The Federalist candidates were John Adams (incumbent) and Charles Pinckney • The Democratic-Republican candidates were Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr • The election ended in a tie, with Jefferson and Burr each receiving 73 electoral votes • After days of voting in the House of Representatives, Thomas Jefferson became the third president of the U. S., with Aaron Burr as his vice president
  4. 4. • After the problems with the election of 1800, Congress passed the 12th Amendment, creating a separate ballot for president and vice president
  5. 5. • Jefferson was a strong supporter of states’ rights, and believed in reducing the power of the federal gov’t. • Jefferson’s cabinet included: - James Madison – Secretary of State - Albert Gallatin – Secretary of the Treasury • Jefferson’s administration allowed the Alien & Sedition Acts to expire, and repealed the Naturalization Act, which had required aliens to live in the U.S. for 14 years (instead of 5) before being eligible for citizenship. • These Acts were seen by the Dem-Rep Party as signs that the federal government threatened individual liberties
  6. 6. • To reduce the national debt, Jefferson reduced the size of the army and navy. He also persuaded Congress to repeal the whiskey tax. • Gov’t funds would now come only from customs duties, and from sale of western lands
  7. 7. • Before Jefferson took office, the Federalists passed the Judiciary Act of 1801, which created 16 judgeships that John Adams had promised to Federalists before leaving office • This ensured that Federalists would control the courts
  8. 8. • One of the judges Adams appointed was William Marbury, but his commission was not delivered before Jefferson took office. • Jefferson told Secretary of State James Madison NOT to deliver the commission • Marbury sued, asking the Supreme Court to order Madison to deliver his appointment papers
  9. 9. • Chief Justice John Marshall wrote the Court’s opinion in the case of Marbury v. Madison - The Supreme Court ruled that the law Marbury based his claim on was unconstitutional; Marbury’s request was denied • The case of Marbury v. Madison established the Supreme Court’s power of Judicial Review
  10. 10. • President Jefferson wanted to expand the borders of the U. S. • He feared that France would close New Orleans, part of the Louisiana Territory, to American trade • Jefferson sent James Monroe to Paris to try to buy New Orleans. The French offered to sell ALL of the Louisiana Territory to the U. S. for $15 million. • The Louisiana Purchase more than doubled the size of the United States
  11. 11. • To learn more about the land acquired in the Louisiana Purchase, Jefferson asked his secretary, Meriwether Lewis, and experienced frontiersman William Clark to lead an expedition • In May 1804, Lewis and Clark led 30 soldiers up the Missouri River. The group was called the Corps of Discovery.
  12. 12. • A Shoshone woman named Sacagawea joined the group as a guide when they reached land near the Rocky Mountains • After 18 months, Lewis and Clark reached the Pacific Ocean • Reports of their journey inspired the American people to travel westward
  13. 13. FYI: - Jefferson also sent explored Zebulon Pike to check out the Western Wilderness - He found a mountain in Colorado that later became known as Pike’s Peak.
  14. 14. FYI: - Many Federalists opposed the Louisiana Purchase, fearing that the new territory would become Republican and weaken their party’s power - Some Federalists in Massachusetts planned to secede (withdraw) from the Union and form a “Northern Confederacy” - They wanted to include all of New England as well as New York; they turned to Aaron Burr for support of their plan
  15. 15. FYI: - Alexander Hamilton had never trusted Aaron Burr. Hamilton became concerned about rumors of Burr agreeing to lead New York out of the Union. - Hamilton accused Burr of plotting treason - Burr lost the 1804 election for governor of NY, and blamed Hamilton - Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel. They met, armed with guns, in New Jersey - Burr shot and killed Hamilton. - He stepped down as VP, and fled to avoid arrest
  16. 16. • Great Britain and France were still at war; each country wanted to stop the other from trading with the U.S. • In 1808, Jefferson urged Congress to pass the Embargo Act. This law banned trade with all foreign countries • The Embargo Act was the U.S. response to Britain’s practice of impressment of U.S. citizens after they stopped and searched American ships • Under the Embargo Act, American ships could not sail to foreign ports, and American ports were closed to British and French ships • By passing the Act, Congress hoped to punish Britain and France and protect American merchant ships from capture
  17. 17. • The law was a disaster. American merchants lost a lot of money, and the British simply traded with Latin America instead. • In March 1809, Congress repealed the Embargo Act and replaced it with the Non- Intercourse Act, which banned trade only with Britain and France. • This law was just as unpopular and ineffective, further damaging the U. S. economy (and contributing to the upcoming War of 1812)
  18. 18. • Like Washington, Jefferson decided not to run for a third term • He retired at his Virginia estate, Monticello • Thomas Jefferson and John Adams both died on July 4, 1826 – the 50th anniversary of the Declaration of Independence