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Soc studies #14b the war for independence

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The American Revolution

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Soc studies #14b the war for independence

  1. 1. The War for Independence
  2. 2. NOTABLE PEOPLE: Mary Ludwig Hays – aka “Molly Pitcher”- brought water to the troops and helped load cannons Deborah Sampson – Dressed as a man and fought in battle Nathan Hale – Went behind British lines to get secret information. When he was caught and about to be executed, Hale declared, “I regret that I have but one life to lose for my country.”
  3. 3. The Marquis de Lafayette, a wealthy Frenchman, brought well-trained soldiers and gave money to support the Patriot cause (1777) Baron Friedrich von Steuben of modern-day Germany trained American troops and turned them into a finely tuned fighting force (1778) Benjamin Franklin got support from King Louis XVI of France; he sent supplies, ammunition, soldiers, and ships
  4. 4. Bernardo de Galvez, Governor of Spanish Louisiana, gathered an army and seized British posts (1779) John Paul Jones was a sailor who seized British supply ships, and captured the warship Serapis on September 23, 1779. Jones is a naval hero of the Revolution.
  5. 5. George Rogers Clark led the campaign west of the Appalachian Mountains. He targeted trading villages with his army, called the Over Mountain Men. His campaigns undermined British support in the West Nathanael Greene replaced Horatio Gates as Commander of the Continental forces in the South in 1780
  6. 6. Francis Marion organized Marion’s Brigade, a group of guerilla soldiers who used surprise attacks to disrupt British communication and supply lines. Marion became known as the “Swamp Fox”
  7. 7. James Armistead was an African slave who worked as a spy for the Marquis de Lafayette. This gave the Continental army an advantage over the British in the Battle at Yorktown The Compte de Rochambeau commanded 4,000 French troops. Together with Washington’s forces, they surrounded British General Cornwallis at the Battle of Yorktown
  8. 8. KEY BATTLES: The Patriots lost conflicts early in the war in Canada and New York British General William Howe captured New York City after driving Washington’s troops into New Jersey Howe had Hessian mercenaries (soldiers from Hesse in Germany) take up the battle in New Jersey. In December 0f 1776, Washington retreated across the Delaware River into Pennsylvania. He knew the Patriots needed a victory. He decided to attack the Hessians at Trenton, New Jersey
  9. 9. The Battle of Trenton On Christmas night, Washington and over 2,000 soldiers slowly crossed the Delaware River The Patriot soldiers sprang upon the sleeping Hessians the next morning, taking over 900 prisoners
  10. 10. The Battle of Princeton British General Charles Cornwallis tried to stop Washington as he marched on to Princeton, New Jersey On January 2, 1777, Washington’s army circled the British troops and attacked, taking the British soldiers by surprise. The Redcoats fled Princeton in defeat.
  11. 11. The Battle of Saratoga British General John Burgoyne planned an invasion to recapture Fort Ticonderoga and go south to Albany, where he would meet up with General Howe. In this way, they planned to gain control of New England. Burgoyne succeeded in taking Ticonderoga, but Howe had changed his plans and captured Philadelphia instead Without Howe’s troops, Burgoyne’s were quickly surrounded by Patriots near Saratoga, NY.
  12. 12. On October 17, 1777, Burgoyne surrendered to General Horatio Gates The Battle of Saratoga was the turning point in the Revolution After this battle, France and Spain joined the Patriots in fighting the British
  13. 13. Winter at Valley Forge • In December 1777, the Continental Army was running low on food and supplies. Washington settled 12,000 men at Valley Forge (25 miles north of Philadelphia) • During the brutal winter of 1777-1778, the men lacked protection against the harsh weather • About 2,000 men died of disease and malnutrition
  14. 14. The Battle of Kings Mountain In the South, fighting was particularly brutal, pitting Patriots and Loyalists against each other directly Georgia fell to the British in 1778 The Patriots surrendered Charleston, South Carolina in May, 1780 In the Battle of Kings Mountain in October of 1780, a group of Patriot militias won the battle in York County, South Carolina. This victory kept the British from further invading the Carolinas
  15. 15. The Battle of Yorktown By 1781, the British held most of the south, as well as Philadelphia and New York City Benedict Arnold, at one time a Patriot hero, had become a traitor now siding with the British General Cornwallis had moved his men to Yorktown, Virginia, hoping to stay in communication with the British naval fleet
  16. 16. Patriot commander Nathanael Greene split his army in two. In January 1781, one section defeated the British at Cowpens, South Carolina. Another group met Cornwallis’s troops at Guilford Court House in North Carolina. Though the Patriots were forced to retreat, the British losses were significant
  17. 17. Cornwallis set up camp at Yorktown and awaited further orders from General Henry Clinton The armies of George Washington and the Compte de Rochambeau surrounded Cornwallis On October 19, 1781, General Cornwallis surrendered. The Patriots won the last major battle of the Revolution at the Battle of Yorktown
  18. 18. • After their defeat at Yorktown, Great Britain entered peace talks with America • Both sides sent delegates to Paris to work out a treaty • Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and John Jay represented the United States
  19. 19. • The Treaty of Paris was signed on September 3, 1783 • Great Britain now recognized the United States as an independent nation

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