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How To Reference

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How To Reference

  1. 1. How to reference Harvard system
  2. 2. Why Reference? <ul><li>If you use someone else’s work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Image </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Video </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sound </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quote </li></ul></ul><ul><li>You must acknowledge that it is their work </li></ul><ul><li>Otherwise you are plagiarising </li></ul>
  3. 3. Harvard referencing style <ul><li>You will use this at university* </li></ul><ul><ul><li>*Note: this is a very simplified version of Harvard referencing compared to what you will use at University </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2 main processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Citing part of the details of the reference in the body of the essay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Citing the full details of the reference in the bibliography at the end of the essay </li></ul></ul><ul><li>You MUST do both </li></ul>
  4. 4. Citing in Text (books, newspapers, magazines, journals etc) <ul><li>Author’s name cited in the text – using a direct quote </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. </li></ul><ul><li>Jones (1994) states that “Email has increasingly common part of or lives”. </li></ul><ul><li>Author’s name not cited directly in the text – paraphrasing a quote </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. </li></ul><ul><li>It is widely accepted that email is a common part of our lives (Jones, 1994). </li></ul>
  5. 5. Citing in Text (websites, blogs, discussion forums etc) <ul><li>Source cited in the text </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. </li></ul><ul><li>The website www.wiki.com states that “email is a useful tool”. </li></ul><ul><li>Source not cited directly in the text </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. </li></ul><ul><li>It is widely accepted that email is a useful tool (www.wiki.com). </li></ul>
  6. 6. Bibliography - Books <ul><li>Books </li></ul><ul><li>The required elements for a book reference are: </li></ul><ul><li>Author, Initials/First name., Year. Title of book. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. </li></ul><ul><li>Jones, P., 2004. Use of eMail. 3rd ed. London: Open University in assoc. with Sage. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Bibliography - Journals <ul><li>Journal articles from an electronic source </li></ul><ul><li>For journal articles from an electronic source the required elements for a reference are: </li></ul><ul><li>Author, Initials., Year. Title of article. Full Title of Journal, [type of medium] Volume number (Issue/Part number), Page numbers if availalble. Available at: include web site address/URL(Uniform Resource Locator) and additional details of access, such as the routing from the home page of the source. [Accessed date]. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. </li></ul><ul><li>Smith, J.M., 2008. How eMail has changed the world. Computer Science Quarterly, [Online]. 40 (1), Available at: Oxford Publishing http://www.oxpub/articles [Accessed 12 June 2009]. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Bibliography – newspapers/ magazines <ul><li>Newspaper articles </li></ul><ul><li>For newspaper articles the required elements for a reference are: </li></ul><ul><li>Author, Initials., Year. Title of article. Full Title of Newspaper, Day and month before page number and column line. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. </li></ul><ul><li>Grimm, G., 2008. Social Networkin: How it has changed us. The Guardian, 3 Sep. p. 27. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Bibliography – Online newspaper / magazines <ul><li>Online newspaper articles </li></ul><ul><li>For newspaper articles found in online newspapers, the required elements for a reference are: </li></ul><ul><li>Author or corporate author, Year. Title of document or page . Name of newspaper, [type of medium] additional date information. Available at: include web site address/URL(Uniform Resource Locator) and additional details of access, such as the routing from the home page of the source.[Accessed date]. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. </li></ul><ul><li>Smith, F., 2008. “Blogs are the Future”. Times Online, [internet] 1 May. Available at: http://www.timesonline.co.uk/0,,11-1527-7886.html [Accessed 7 May 2007]. </li></ul><ul><li>It is good practice to keep in your files a copy of the front page of any website you use. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Bibliography – DVD / broadcasts <ul><li>DVD or film </li></ul><ul><li>The required elements for a reference are: </li></ul><ul><li>Full title of DVD or video. Year of distribution. [Medium] Director (if relevant) Country or origin: Film studio or maker. (Other relevant details). </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. </li></ul><ul><li>The Information Age. 2009 [DVD] London: Channel 4 Films. </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcasts </li></ul><ul><li>For a broadcast the suggested elements should include: </li></ul><ul><li>Series title and episode name and number if relevant , Year of broadcast. [Medium] Broadcasting organisation and Channel, date and time of transmission. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. </li></ul><ul><li>The Internet Revolution , 2010. [TV programme] BBC, BBC2, 30 January 2010 20.00. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Bibliography – Webpages <ul><li>Websites </li></ul><ul><li>For websites found on the world wide web the required elements for a reference are: </li></ul><ul><li>Authorship or Source, Year. Title of web document or web page . [Medium] (date of update) Available at: include web site address/URL(Uniform Resource Locator) and additional details such as access or routing from the home page of the source. [Accessed date]. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. </li></ul><ul><li>Wikipedia, 2009. What does the internet do? [Online] (Updated 16 Jan 2009) Available at: http://www.wikipedia.com/internet [Accessed 1 February 2010]. </li></ul><ul><li>The title of a web page is normally the main heading on the page. </li></ul><ul><li>It is good practice to keep a copy of the front page of any website you use. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Bibliography – personal creations <ul><li>You should reference anything you have created yourself </li></ul><ul><li>This includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Videos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photos, Buttons or other graphics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Questionnaires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul></ul>

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