<ul><li>Grihastha ashrama is the householder stage, which starts from 25 years and lasts till 50 years. In this stage, one marries, has a family, and works to maintain the family and society, in order to fulfil the emotional needs, the kama aspect. </li></ul>(a) What is meant by Grihastha ashrama?
(b) Give 2 examples of tapas. (2 marks) <ul><li>Practicing self-restraint, in order to become pure, such as celibacy, or a vow of silence, meditation. Making sacrifices to develop the self. </li></ul>
d) Explain Hindu beliefs about divorce and re-marriage in India and in the UK. (6 marks) Structure your answer Refer to whole question <ul><li>Marriage is a sacred duty, it is part of the Grihastha ashrama dharma. </li></ul><ul><li>Marriages are carefully arranged and are regarded as the joining of two souls, two families, linked by bonds of karma and caste. </li></ul><ul><li>Dvorce is discouraged at all costs. The couple should be a reflection of Rama and Sita. </li></ul><ul><li>Legally divorce is allowed in India, and in some cases marriages do break down but there is a very low rate of divorce in Hindu marriages as it is the couples duty to make their marriage work. Divorce is considered acceptable for the following reasons….no children, no sons, adultery, abuse, long-term separation. </li></ul><ul><li>Main area of concern is the role of women, who once married become part of the husbands family, she may not be accepted back into her own family, and will be without support and protection, so she may end up in a refuge for widows, as there is no other social support available to her </li></ul><ul><li>Divorced women who wish to remarry have a difficult experience….some are seen as effectively being widows… </li></ul><ul><li>Divorce rates in the UK amongst Hindu couples are very low, marriages may or may not have been arranged, not the same expectations as in India…. </li></ul><ul><li>Overall Divorce is seen as a social disgrace and is avoided as much as possible. </li></ul>
e) “You have a duty to limit the number of children you have to make sure everyone can be fed” 12 marks <ul><li>Hindu views on the use of contraception- in India today compared to the past. </li></ul><ul><li>Ahimsa teaches.. This leads to 2 opinions on the use of contraception. </li></ul><ul><li>Gandhi used the idea of tapas and believed in celibacy, and the ideal of the bramacharyia ashrama, rather than contraception. </li></ul><ul><li>In Britain today…. </li></ul><ul><li>Hindu views compared to Catholics would teach, or compared to another religious tradition…. </li></ul><ul><li>Humanists- spread of AIDS and STIs, are not good for society and safe-sex should be practiced </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions- Should we follow religious ideas on carefully managed sexual relationships where sex is planned in a loving relationship, or should people consider the idea of having more than one sexual partner and taking responsible action when having sex. </li></ul>