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Government ch. 1 - principles of gov't


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Government ch. 1 - principles of gov't

  1. 1. 1-1 Principles of Government
  2. 2. State: Synonym: country. “Political community that occupies a definite territory and has an organized government with the power to make and enforce laws without approval from any higher authority.” • There are about 200 states in the world. Nation: Synonym: ethnic group. “Group of people united by bonds of race, language, custom, tradition, and sometimes religion.” Nation-state: “A country in which the territory of both the nation and the state coincide.”
  3. 3. Kurdish Speaking Areas
  4. 4. Essential Features of a State • Population • Territory • Sovereignty – Synonym: Independence • Government
  5. 5. Purposes of Government • Maintain social order. • Provide public services. • Provide national security. • Make economic decisions.
  6. 6. How do governments derive their power? 1) Legitimacy. Consent of the governed. 2) Ability to use coercive force.
  7. 7. 1-2 The Formation of Governments
  8. 8. Government Systems The relationship between a country’s national government and the government of its states or smaller units may be either: • Unitary – national government has all the power; may delegate some to states. • Federal – power is divided between national and state governments.
  9. 9. Vocabulary “Federal” also has two meanings: 1) Federal as in federalism. Power is divided between the nation and the states. 2) Pertaining to a nation (country) rather than a state. i.e. federal laws vs. state laws. • Note that “federal” and “national” usually mean the same thing.
  10. 10. Constitutions • Definition: A plan that provides the rules for governments. • Purposes: – Describes country’s ideals. – Establishes the structure of the government. – Supreme law of the land. • May be written or unwritten. • U.S. Constitution is the oldest one still being used in the world!
  11. 11. Constitutions, cont’d • Constitutional government – Synonym: limited government. constitution has authority to place clearly recognized limits on the powers of those who govern. Not totalitarian. • Constitutions are always incomplete. • Constitutions usually have a preamble – sets forth goals and purposes of government. • Constitutions are usually divided into articles and sections. • Constitutional Law – involves interpretation and application of the Constitution, which is the “supreme law of the land.”
  12. 12. Politics & Government • Government: Institution through which the state maintains social order, provides public services, and enforces binding decisions on citizens. • Politics: Effort to control or influence the conduct and policies of government. • Special Interests: groups with a particular agenda that try to influence politics.
  13. 13. Politics & Government (cont’d) • “… there is a continual struggle over what benefits and services government should provide, and who should pay for them. Through politics, individuals and groups seek to maximize the benefits they get from the government while they try to reduce the cost of those benefits. Through politics, people also seek to use government to turn their values and beliefs into public policy …” (Glencoe textbook) • “Through politics, conflicts in society are managed.” (Glencoe textbook)
  14. 14. Governing in a Complex World Nonstate International Groups • Terrorists • National liberation organizations • Multinational corporations • International organizations (UN, WTO, etc.)
  15. 15. 1-3 Types of Government
  16. 16. Major Types of Government Autocracy • Totalitarian Dictatorship • Absolute Monarchy • Constitutional Monarchy Oligarchy Democracy • Direct Democracy • Representational Democracy • Republic
  17. 17. Characteristics of Democracy • Individual Liberty • Majority rule with minority rights • Free elections • Competing political parties
  18. 18. Conditions Necessary for Democracy • Active citizen participation • Favorable economy • Widespread education • Strong civil society • Social consensus
  19. 19. 1-4 Economic Theories
  20. 20. What is the difference between Socialism and Communism? Communism - “from each according to his ability, to each according to his need.” It is a “dream” that has never been implemented – the idea of a classless society that produces an abundance of goods that are given freely. Socialism – “from each according to his ability, to each according to his deed.” What has been implemented in Russia, China and other communist countries. It is seen as a “stage” in the progression from capitalism to communism.
  21. 21. What are the economic difference between Socialism and Capitalism? Capitalism: • Market economy • Private ownership Socialism • Planned / command economy • Public ownership of means of production
  22. 22. What are the political differences between Socialism and Capitalism? Capitalism: • Two party political system • Individual freedoms • Right to criticize and oppose state Socialism • Single party system • Repressive gov’t • Criticism and opposition not tolerated Democratic Socialism: democratic political system with partly socialist economic system – Scandinavian countries
  23. 23. Results of communism: Gross human rights violations: • In china, 30-40 million peasants starved in 1958- 61, due to government induced famine. • In Russia, 10 million were arrested, 1 million executed, millions more died in prisons under Stalin. Low standard of living. Defections to west. Most communist regimes toppled in 1980’s and ‘90’s.
  24. 24. Results of capitalism High standard of living; maybe much too high; huge personal debt. Increasing gap between rich and poor. U.S. is becoming more “socialist” (increased government spending and government debt) U.S. has a number of “ticking time bomb” problems.