29.1 marching toward war


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29.1 marching toward war

  1. 1. Marching Toward WarMarching Toward War Chapter 29, Section 1Chapter 29, Section 1
  2. 2. IntroductionIntroduction  Efforts to outlaw war and achieve aEfforts to outlaw war and achieve a permanent peace had been gainingpermanent peace had been gaining momentum in Europe since the middle ofmomentum in Europe since the middle of the 19the 19thth century.century.  Some Europeans believed that progressSome Europeans believed that progress had made war a thing of the past.had made war a thing of the past.  Yet in little more than a decade, a massiveYet in little more than a decade, a massive war would spread across the globe.war would spread across the globe.
  3. 3. Rising Tensions in EuropeRising Tensions in Europe  Below the surface of peace andBelow the surface of peace and goodwill, Europe witnessed severalgoodwill, Europe witnessed several gradual developments that wouldgradual developments that would ultimately help propel the continentultimately help propel the continent into war.into war.
  4. 4. The Rise of NationalismThe Rise of Nationalism  The growth ofThe growth of nationalismnationalism—deep—deep devotion to one’s nation—caused intensedevotion to one’s nation—caused intense competition among thecompetition among the Great PowersGreat Powers:: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Great Britain,Germany, Austria-Hungary, Great Britain, Russia, Italy, and France.Russia, Italy, and France.  The Great Powers competed for marketsThe Great Powers competed for markets and territory.and territory.  Intense nationalism in the nations of theIntense nationalism in the nations of the BalkansBalkans led to demands for independenceled to demands for independence among Serbs, Bulgarians, Romanians, andamong Serbs, Bulgarians, Romanians, and others.others.
  5. 5. Imperialism and MilitarismImperialism and Militarism  ImperialismImperialism, and the quest for colonies, and the quest for colonies sometimes pushed European nations tosometimes pushed European nations to the brink of war and intensified the sensethe brink of war and intensified the sense of rivalry and mistrust.of rivalry and mistrust.  The nations of Europe took pride in havingThe nations of Europe took pride in having strong militaries and being prepared forstrong militaries and being prepared for war. This led to a dangerouswar. This led to a dangerous arms racearms race..  Glorifying military power is calledGlorifying military power is called militarismmilitarism..
  6. 6. Tangled AlliancesTangled Alliances  Growing rivalries and mutual mistrust had led to the creation of several military alliances among the Great Powers as early as the 1870s. This alliance system had been designed to keep peace in Europe. But it would instead help push the continent into war.
  7. 7. Bismarck Forges Early PactsBismarck Forges Early Pacts  Between 1864 and 1871, Prussia’s blood- and-iron chancellor, Otto von Bismarck, freely used war to unify Germany.  Bismarck saw France as the greatest threat to peace.  His goal was to isolate France and leave it without allies.  In 1879, Bismarck formed the Dual Alliance between Germany and Austria- Hungary.  In 1881, Italy joined this alliance forming the Triple Alliance.
  8. 8. Triple Alliance (1881)Triple Alliance (1881)
  9. 9. Shifting Alliances Threaten PeaceShifting Alliances Threaten Peace  In 1890, Germany’s foreign policy changed dramatically. That year, Kaiser Wilhelm II—ruler of Germany—forced Bismarck to resign.  Wilhelm let his nation’s treaty with Russia lapse in 1890.  Russia formed a military alliance with France in 1892 and 1894. Such an alliance had been Bismarck’s fear.
  10. 10.  Picture of KaiserPicture of Kaiser Wilhelm IIWilhelm II
  11. 11. Shifting Alliances Threaten PeaceShifting Alliances Threaten Peace (continued)(continued)  Kaiser Wilhelm II starts a shipbuilding program to make the German navy equal to the British fleet.  Alarmed by this, England forms the Triple Entente with France and Russia.  Therefore, there are two rival camps in Europe: the Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente.
  12. 12. Military AlliancesMilitary Alliances Before World War IBefore World War I
  13. 13. Crisis in the BalkansCrisis in the Balkans  This mountainous peninsula in the southeastern corner of Europe was home to an assortment of ethnic groups. With a long history of nationalist uprisings and ethnic clashes, the Balkans was known as the “powder keg” of Europe.
  14. 14. A Restless RegionA Restless Region  By the early 1900s the Ottoman Turks hadBy the early 1900s the Ottoman Turks had declined and the peoples of the Balkansdeclined and the peoples of the Balkans had formed new nations: Bulgaria, Greece,had formed new nations: Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro, Romania, and Serbia.Montenegro, Romania, and Serbia.  Serbia had a large Slavic population andSerbia had a large Slavic population and was supported by Russia.was supported by Russia.  In 1908, Austria annexed Bosnia andIn 1908, Austria annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina. Serbian leaders wereHerzegovina. Serbian leaders were outraged and tensions between the twooutraged and tensions between the two nations rose.nations rose.
  15. 15. A Shot Rings Throughout EuropeA Shot Rings Throughout Europe  On June 28, 1914On June 28, 1914 the heir to thethe heir to the throne of Austria,throne of Austria, Archduke FranzArchduke Franz FerdinandFerdinand and hisand his wifewife SophieSophie, paid, paid a visit to Sarajevo,a visit to Sarajevo, the capital ofthe capital of Bosnia. Foolishly,Bosnia. Foolishly, they were riding inthey were riding in an open car.an open car.
  16. 16. Assassination and UltimatumAssassination and Ultimatum  The couple wasThe couple was shot by 19-year-shot by 19-year- oldold GavriloGavrilo PrincipPrincip (right), a(right), a Serbian nationalistSerbian nationalist member of themember of the terroristterrorist organization Blackorganization Black Hand.Hand.
  17. 17. Location of AssassinationLocation of Assassination
  18. 18. Historical MarkerHistorical Marker
  19. 19. UltimatumUltimatum  Austria delivers an ultimatum toAustria delivers an ultimatum to Serbia with numerous demands onSerbia with numerous demands on July 23, 1914. Serbia agreed toJuly 23, 1914. Serbia agreed to mostmost of the demands trying to avoid war.of the demands trying to avoid war.
  20. 20. Historical ArtifactHistorical Artifact  The blood stainedThe blood stained uniform ofuniform of Archduke FranzArchduke Franz FerdinandFerdinand
  21. 21. The War BeginsThe War Begins  July 28, 1914: Austria rejectsJuly 28, 1914: Austria rejects Serbia’s offer of most of theSerbia’s offer of most of the demands and declared war ondemands and declared war on Serbia.Serbia.  Russia, the protector of Serbia,Russia, the protector of Serbia, mobilizes its forces toward themobilizes its forces toward the Austrian border.Austrian border.