28.4 TURMOIL ANDCHANGE IN MEXICOPolitical, economic, and social inequalities inMexico triggered a period of revolution andreform.
Santa Anna 1821 and 1829 hefought against theSpanish 1833 becamepresidentSwitched sideson differentissues
The Texas Revolt Many Americans movedto Texas (Mexico) forcheap land As the Anglo populationgrew so did tension Stephen Austinencouraged a revolt in1835 The Alamo Texas defeated Battle of San Jacinto Santa Anna captured bySam Houston butreturned to Mexico
Battle of San Jacinto defeated Santa Annaand won Texas independence.
Juárez and La Reforma Benito Juarez Political influence Worked to serve thepeople La Reforma, liberalreform movement Redistribution of land,separation of church andstate, increasededucational opportunities Liberals vs.Conservatives Many battles led to aLiberal victory and Juarezas president
The French Invade Mexico Conservativesconspired with theFrench Under Napoleon III,the French took overMexico in 1862 War proved to be toocostly and so theFrench withdrew Juarez reappointedas President Rebuilt, opened newroads, railroads,telegraph system,educational systemNapoleon III ofFrance(above)Maximilian I ofMexico (below)
Porfirio Díaz and “Order andProgress” Served those thatsupported him,elections were notnecessary Terrorized nonsupporters “Order and Progress” Railroads expanded,banks were built,currency stabilized Farmers did not putland to good use,poverty rose
Revolutionary LeadersFrancisco “Pancho” Villa Emiliano Zapata•Revolutionary general in thesouth.•Determined to see landreturned to peasants.•Wanted laws reformed toprotect rights of peasants.•“Land of Liberty” his battle cry.•His assassination brought anend to the civil war.•Revolutionary general in thenorth.•Immensely popular•“Robin Hood” policy of taking•Bothcame frompoorfamilies.•Both wereassassinated
Revolution and Civil War Francisco Madero Educated in U.S. and France Sought democracy Presidential candidate in 1910 He was arrested and exiled toU.S. by Díaz. In 1911, after Diaz agreed to stepdown, Madero was electedpresident. He was considered too liberal forsome and too conservative forothers. Villa and Zapata later opposedhim after initially supporting him byforce. Madero resigned on February 19,1913. He was murdered, probably on theorders of General VictorianoHuerta, three days later.
General Victoriano Huerta Unpopular withmany peopleincluding Villa andZapata
Mexican Constitution Adopted in 1917 Promoted education, land reforms, worker’s rights Carranza overthrown by Obregon in 1920 1928, Obregon assassinated Sought peace under the power of the InstitutionalRevolutionary Party