28.2 Modernization in JapanJapan followed the model of Westernpowers by industrializing andexpanding its foreign influence.
Japan Ends Its Isolation• Japan had little contact with theindustrialized world during its isolation.• Japan did trade with the Dutch fromIndonesia, and the Chinese.• Japan had diplomatic ties with Korea.
Demand for Foreign Trade• Early 1800s—Westerners try toconvince the Japanese to open portsfor trade.• Japan repeatedly refused.• 1853—Commodore Matthew Perry(right) takes four ships to Tokyoharbor.• The Tokugaowa shogun decides hehas no choice but to receive Perry andthe letter he carries from the Presidentof the United States, Millard Fillmore.• Letter requests free trade betweenJapan and United States.• Perry returned with a larger, morethreatening fleet the following year.• Japan signed the Treaty of Kanagawawhich opened two ports to U.S. shipsand granted American citizensextraterritorial rights.Not to be confused with THIS Matthew Perry.
Meiji Reform and Modernization• Japanese were angered thatthe Shogun gave in toAmerican demands so easily.• The turned to the figureheademperor Mutsuhito.• Shogun stepped down in 1867and the emperor took controlof the government.• He called his reign “Meiji” or“enlightened rule.”• The reign lasted 45 years andis called the “Meiji Period.”
Meiji Era• The Meiji emperor realized the best way tocounter Western influence was to modernize.• The Japanese chose the best of Western waysand adapted them to their own country.– Patterned Germany’s strong central government andused its constitution as a model.– Used German army as a model for their army– Used British navy as a model for their navy– Used American system of universal education fortheir schools.
Meiji Era• Japanese followed the Western path ofindustrialization.• By the early 20thcentury the economy wasas modern as any in the world.• Japan’s first railroad built in 1872• Coal production grew• State supported companies builtthousands of factories.
Imperial Japan• By 1890 Japan as several dozen warshipsand 500,000 well trained soldiers.• Once Japan had this strength it eliminatedextraterritorial rights for foreigners.• This was done with the promise thatforeigners would by treated fairly byJapan’s modern legal code.
Japan Attacks China:First Sino-Japanese War (1894-95)• 1876-Japan forces Korea toopen three ports toJapanese trade.• 1885-Japan and China signa hands-off agreement toprevent military invasion ofKorea.• 1894-China breaks theagreement by helping theKorean king put down arebellion.• The First Sino-JapaneseWar (1894-95) lasts only afew months, but Japangains a foothold inManchuria.Japanese troops during theFirst Sino-Japanese War
Japanese soldiers of the First Sino-Japanese War (1895)
Satirical drawing in PunchMagazine (29 September1894), showing the victory of"small" Japan over "large"China
Japanese illustration depicting the beheadingof Chinese captives in October 1894
Russo-Japanese War• The victory against China changes thebalance of power in the region.• Russia and Japan soon go to war overManchuria.• 1903—Japan offers to recognize Russia’srights in Manchuria as long as Russiastays out of Korea.• Russia refuses this agreement.
Russo-Japanese War• February 1904—Japan launches a surprise attack onRussian ships anchored off the coast of Manchuria.• The resulting Russo-Japanese War drives Russiantroops out of Korea, and Japan captures most ofRussia’s pacific fleet.• 1905—Japan and Russia begin peace negotiations withthe mediation of U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt.• The Treaty of Portsmouth is signed. Japan keeps allcaptured territory.• Russia loses!
The reconstructed Mikasadocked as a permanentmuseum in 2010 (above),and as it looked in 1905(right).
Admiral Togo on the bridge of the Mikasa,before the Battle of Tsushima in 1905. Thisbattle annihilated the Russian Pacific fleet.
• A Japanesepropaganda of thewar: woodcut printshowing TsarNicholas II wakingfrom a nightmare ofthe battered andwounded Russianforces returning frombattle. ArtistKobayashi Kiyochika,1904 or 1905
Punch cartoon,1905; A cartoon inthe British press ofthe times illustratingRussias loss ofprestige after thenations defeat. Thehour-glassrepresentingRussias prestigerunning out
Negotiating the Treaty of Portsmouth (1905). From left to right: the Russians at farside of table are Korostovetz, Nabokov, Witte, Rosen, Plancon; and the Japanese atnear side of table are Adachi, Ochiai, Komura, Takahira, Sato. The large conferencetable is today preserved at the Museum Meiji Mura in Inuyama, Aichi Prefecture, Japan.
Japan-Russia Treaty of Peace, 5 September 1905.Theodore Rooseveltwon the Nobel PeacePrize in 1905 for hisefforts in bringingabout peace betweenRussia and Japan.
Japanese Occupation of Korea• After defeating Russia,Japan attacked Korea with avengeance.• 1905—Korea made aprotectorate of Japan.• 1907--Korean king gave upcontrol of the country, andthe Korean Army disbandedwithin two years.• 1910—Japan officiallyimposed annexation onKorea.Emperor Gongjon (above left)abdicates his throne and is putunder house arrest by theJapanese. His son Sunjong (aboveright), rules Korea as a Japanesepuppet from 1907-1910 before fullJapanese annexation.
Korea Under Japanese Rule• Japanese were harsh rulers.• Korean newspapers were shut down.• Study of Korean culture and language wasreplaced with Japanese subjects.• Land was taken from Korean farmers.• Brought Japanese businesses to Korea butforbid Korean businesses.• Korean nationalist movement resulted from thisharsh rule.
China and Japan Confront theWest: A Comparison