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Kepuasan Dan Loyal 4

KEPUASAN DAN LOYAL

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Kepuasan Dan Loyal 4

  1. 1. Customer Satisfaction, Customer Retention and e-CRM Yohan Wismantoro [email_address] e-Business Strategy Management Department Dian Nuswantoro University
  2. 2. KEPUSAN KONSUMEN SURAT PEMBACA KELUHAN PUJIAN PENGALAMAN MEMAKAI PRODUK PUAS BERCERITA (2 ORG) TIDAK PUAS BERCERITA (10 ORG) BERPENGARUH PEMBELIAN
  3. 3. PERUSA-HAAN MEMUASKAN KONSUMEN MENGHINDARI DEVIL ADVOCATE PEMASAR GRATIS WORD OF MOUTH COMMUNICATION LOYAL COMITTED BUYER (Aaker (1991) HARDCORE LOYAL (Kotler, 2000)
  4. 4. <ul><li>Era globalisasi, setiap perusahaan harus memuaskan pelanggan bila ingin memenangkan persaingan </li></ul><ul><li>Kotler (2000), Kepuasan adalah tingkat perasaan seseorang setelah membandingkan kinerja (atau hasil) sesuatu produk yang ia rasakan dibandingkan dengan harapannya </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Harapan Pelanggan merupakan perkiraan atau keyakinan pelanggan tentang apa yang akan diterimanya bila ia membeli atau mengkonsumsi suatu produk (barang / layanan) </li></ul><ul><li>Kinerja ( Performance ) adalah persepsi pelanggan terhadap apa yang ia terima setelah mengkonsumsi produk yang dibeli </li></ul>
  6. 6. BAGAIMANA PEMBELI MEMBENTUK HARAPANNYA ? <ul><li>Harapan para pembeli dipenuhi oleh pengalaman pembelian mereka sebelumnya. </li></ul><ul><li>Nasihat teman atau kolega </li></ul><ul><li>Janji dan informasi pasar dan para pesaingnya </li></ul>
  7. 7. Bagaimanan Harapan Terbentuk ? <ul><li>Sumber Eksternal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Klaim Promosi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informasi dari mulut ke mulut </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aspek-aspek terkait dengan produk (harga, kemasan, ketersediaan, merek, store image, dan iklan : metode, format dan frekwensi) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sumber Internal (diri sendiri) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pengalaman dan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kebutuhan ( needed-level expectation ) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. IKLAN
  9. 9. MENGUKUR HARAPAN <ul><li>Dalam konteks perilaku konsumen, harapan adalah performans yang diharapkan (Simamora, 2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Jadi, harapan adalah kualitas yang diharapkan ( expected quality ) dari produk atau layanan </li></ul><ul><li>Karena itu pengukurannya juga sama dengan mengukur kualitas produk, yaitu menurut sudut pandang konsumen ( perceived quality ) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Harapan Berdasarkan Tingkat Keinginan Ideal Excellence Desired Deserved Needed Adequate Minimum tollerable Intolerable Zona Toleransi Zona Tak berpengaruh Sumber : Oliver, dalam Simamora (2001, 161)
  11. 11. THE IMPORTANCE OF CUSTOMER SATISFACTION <ul><li>The average business does not hear from 96% of its unhappy customers </li></ul><ul><li>For every complaint received, 26 customers actually have the same problem </li></ul><ul><li>The average person with a problem tells 9 or 10 people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>13% tell more than 20 </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. THE IMPORTANCE OF CUSTOMER SATISFACTION <ul><li>Customers who have their complaints resolved tell an average of 5 people </li></ul><ul><li>Complainers are more likely to do business with you again than non-complainers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>54-70% if the complaint is resolved at all </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>95% if the complaint is resolved quickly </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. WHAT IS CUSTOMER SATISFACTION/DISSATISFACTION? <ul><li>Expectancy Disconfirmation Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Confirmation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>perceptions = expectations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative Disconfirmation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>perceptions < expectations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive Disconfirmation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>perceptions > expectations </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. THE BENEFITS OF CUSTOMER SATISFACTION <ul><li>Positive word-of-mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Purchase more frequently </li></ul><ul><li>Less likely to be lost to competitors </li></ul><ul><li>Insulated from price competition </li></ul><ul><li>Positive work environments </li></ul>
  15. 15. MEASURING CUSTOMER SATISFACTION <ul><li>FedEx’s “Hierarchy of Horrors” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>wrong-day delivery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>right day, late delivery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pick-up not made </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lost package </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>customer misinformed by FedEx </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>billing and paperwork mistakes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>employee performance failures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>damaged packages </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. UNDERSTANDING CUSTOMER SATISFACTION RATING <ul><li>Virtually all self-reports of customer satisfaction possess a distribution that is ………………??? </li></ul>High dissatisfaction High satisfaction Conceptual Distribution of Satisfaction Measurements Source: Robert A. Peterson and William R. Wilson, “Measuring Customer Satisfaction: Fact and Artifact,” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 20,1 (1992), p. 61.
  17. 17. Service Failures and Recovery Strategies
  18. 18. Figure 14.1 Types of Service Failures Total sample Is there a service delivery system failure? Group 1 Nature of failure? Nature of requests/ need? Nature of employee action? Unavailable Slow Other failures “ Special needs” Customer preference Customer error Disruptive others Level of attention Unusual action Cultural norms Gestalt Adverse conditions Group 2 Group 3 Group 1A Group 1B Group 1C Group 2A Group 2B Group 2C Group 2D Group 3A Group 3B Group 3C Group 3D Group 3E Is there an implicit/ explicit request for accomo- dation Is there an Unpromoted/ unsolicited action by employee? No Yes Yes Yes No No Source: Mary Jo Bitner, Bernard H. Booms, and Mary Stanfield Tetreault, “The Service Encounter: Diagnosing Favorable and Unfavorable Incidents,” Journal of Marketing (January 1990, pp. 71-84.
  19. 19. SAMPLING OF SATISFACTION RESULTS Source: Robert A. Peterson and William R. Wilson, “Measuring Customer Satisfaction: Fact and Artifact,” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 20,1 (1992), p. 61.
  20. 22. Loyalitas Konsumen <ul><li>Loyalitas konsumen dapat disebabkan oleh beberapa faktor (hubungan keluarga, teman dekat, tetangga, harga yang terjangkau, serta pelayanan dan kenyamanan yang sangat baik) </li></ul><ul><li>Loyalitas konsumen tercipta apabila perusahaan mampu memenuhi kebutuhan dan keinginan konsumen. </li></ul>

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