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MALNUTRITION.pptx

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This presentation discusses the types, signs, causes, diseases, and treatments of malnutrition. It talks about obesity, being underweight, health problems, anemia, marasmus, kwashiorkor, mid-day meals and WHO response to malnutrition.

This presentation discusses the types, signs, causes, diseases, and treatments of malnutrition. It talks about obesity, being underweight, health problems, anemia, marasmus, kwashiorkor, mid-day meals and WHO response to malnutrition.

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MALNUTRITION.pptx

  1. 1. MALNUTRITION Mana.S 78
  2. 2. INDEX i. Introduction ii. Overview iii. Causes of malnutrition iv. Signs of malnutrition v. Types of malnutrition vi. Diseases vii. Treatment viii. WHO Response ix. Summary made by: mrinmayee s
  3. 3. Introduction WHO defines Malnutrition as: Deficiencies or excesses in nutrient intake, imbalance of essential nutrients or impaired nutrient utilization. made by: mrinmayee s
  4. 4. OVERVIEW • Malnutrition refers to deficiencies, excesses, or imbalances in a person’s intake of energy and/or nutrients. The term malnutrition addresses 3 broad groups of conditions:  Undernutrition, which includes wasting (low weight-for-height), stunting (low height-for-age) and underweight (low weight-for-age);  Micronutrient-related malnutrition, which includes micronutrient deficiencies (a lack of important vitamins and minerals) or micronutrient excess; and  Overweight, obesity and diet-related noncommunicable diseases (such as heart disease, stroke, diabetes and some cancers). made by: mrinmayee s
  5. 5. CAUSES OF MALNUTRITION  Unsuitable Dietary Choices  Having A Low Income  Difficulty Obtaining Food  Various Physical And Mental Health Conditions made by: mrinmayee s
  6. 6. SIGNS OF MALNUTRITION • Common signs of malnutrition(undernutrition) include:  Unintentional weight loss – losing 5% to 10% or more of weight over 3 to 6 months is one of the main signs of malnutrition  A low body weight – people with a body mass index (BMI) under 18.5 are at risk of being malnourished (use the BMI calculator to work out your BMI)  A lack of interest in eating and drinking  Feeling tired all the time  Feeling weak  Getting ill often and taking a long time to recover  In children, not growing or not putting on weight at the expected rate made by: mrinmayee s
  7. 7. TYPES OF MALNUTRITION
  8. 8. UNDERNUTRITION • There are 4 broad sub-forms of undernutrition: Wasting, Stunting, Underweight, And Deficiencies In Vitamins And Minerals. Undernutrition makes children in particular much more vulnerable to disease and death • Low weight-for-height is known as wasting. It usually indicates recent and severe weight loss, because a person has not had enough food to eat and/or they have had an infectious disease, such as diarrhea, which has caused them to lose weight. A young child who is moderately or severely wasted has an increased risk of death, but treatment is possible. • Low height-for-age is known as stunting. It is the result of chronic or recurrent undernutrition, usually associated with poor socioeconomic conditions, poor maternal health and nutrition, frequent illness, and/or inappropriate infant and young child feeding and care in early life. Stunting holds children back from reaching their physical and cognitive potential. • Children with low weight-for-age are known as underweight. A child who is made by: mrinmayee s
  9. 9. • Populations more at risk of undernutrition include: Poor and low income. Whether in a developed country like the U.S. or in developing countries with fewer resources overall, poorer communities have less access to adequate nutrition. Children. Children have greater nutritional needs than adults in order to grow and develop. Disadvantaged children are especially at risk of undernutrition and its consequences. Chronically ill. Many chronic illnesses can directly affect appetite and/or calorie absorption. Some increase your caloric needs. Spending time in the hospital is also a risk factor for undernutrition. Elderly. As adults advance in age, their nutrition can deteriorate for several reasons, including reduced mobility, institutionalization, reduced appetite and reduced absorption of nutrients. made by: mrinmayee s
  10. 10. OVERNUTRITION • Overnutrition is another type of malnutrition. It occurs when A person takes in more nutrients than they need. The result may be an accumulation of body fat from the excess nutrients, resulting in overweight or obesity. • Overnutrition has several health implications. People who have overweight or obesity are at greater risk of: Heart disease High blood pressure Diabetes Cancer High cholesterol made by: mrinmayee s
  11. 11. • Populations more at risk of overnutrition include: Poor and low income. In developed countries, poorer communities often have easier access to fast foods, which are high in calories but low in nutritional value, than they have to nutritious whole foods. This can lead to macronutrient overnutrition with micronutrient undernutrition. Sedentary. Desk jobs, family obligations, health and social factors that keep people sitting all day instead of out and moving about can lead to significant weight gain. made by: mrinmayee s
  12. 12. MICRONUTRIENT-RELATED MALNUTRITION Inadequacies in intake of vitamins and minerals often referred to as micronutrients, can also be grouped together. Micronutrients enable the body to produce enzymes, hormones, and other substances that are essential for proper growth and development. Iodine, vitamin A, and iron are the most important in global public health terms; their deficiency represents a major threat to the health and development of populations worldwide, particularly children and pregnant women in low-income countries. made by: mrinmayee s
  13. 13. DISEASES Deficiency of protein and energy during infancy is one of the most serious problems throughout the world. It leads to clinical syndromes such as Kwashiorkor, Marasmus, and Anemia. made by: mrinmayee s
  14. 14. KWASHIORKOR  Kwashiorkor is a protein deficiency disease, caused due to poor intake of protein or quality protein over a prolonged period of time.  Kwashiorkor causes swelling in the body especially in the hands, feet and the face. The hair and skin show characteristic changes – hair may be light colored or depigmented to reddish yellow and fall off in patches and the skin show patches and become flaky and peel off. MARASMUS  Marasmus is due to severe of protein and calorie in the diet. It is not due to calorie deficiency alone because marasmic children subsequently develop kwashiorkor. The common signs and symptoms include loss of body weight and failure in weight gain, body fat depletion, muscles are wasted. The marasmic child is characterized with its thin, lean skinny appearance whereas a kwashiorkor child is flabby with edema or swelling in the body.  A sample diet for kwashiorkor and marasmus child should be high calorie and high protein like milk, rava, porridge, boiled groundnut, dal, and rice.  The sources are – eggs, guava, soybeans, rice, dal, soybeans made by: mrinmayee s
  15. 15. KWASHIORKOR MARASMUS made by: mrinmayee s
  16. 16. ANAEMIA  Nutritional anemia is a serious health problem. It is due to deficiency of iron in the diet. It is very common for women and girls, menstrual losses and increased needs in pregnancy are some cause of anemia.  A well-balanced diet with high protein, iron, Vit C and B Complex is required. The recommended sources are dry fruit like raisins, currants, dates, figs, prunes, green leafy veg, drumsticks green mango, soybeans, rice bran.  Eggs are considered the best source of iron and protein and can be taken by those who can afford it. made by: mrinmayee s
  17. 17. WHO IS AT RISK?  Every country in the world is affected by one or more forms of malnutrition. Combating malnutrition in all its forms is one of the greatest global health challenges.  Women, infants, children, and adolescents are at particular risk of malnutrition.  People who are poor are more likely to be affected by different forms of
  18. 18. TREATMENT Undernutrition is treated with nutritional supplements. This might mean individual micronutrients, or it might mean refeeding with a custom, high-calorie nutritional formula designed to restore everything your body is Overnutrition is generally treated with weight loss, diet and lifestyle changes. Losing extra weight can help reduce your risk of developing secondary conditions such as diabetes and heart disease. Weight loss treatment may include diet and exercise plans, medications or medical made by: mrinmayee s
  19. 19. MID-DAY MEALS BY GOVERNMENT made by: mrinmayee s
  20. 20.  WHO works with Member States and partners towards the goal of ending all forms of malnutrition by 2030 as part of the Sustainable Development Goals. Meeting this goal is contingent on securing universal access to effective nutrition interventions and to healthy diets from sustainable and resilient food systems.  To this end, WHO advocates for policies that promote nutrition on a global scale. This work is framed by the 2012 World Health Assembly -Comprehensive implementation plan on maternal, infant and young child nutrition. It also contributes to the United WHO made by: mrinmayee s
  21. 21. Summary Malnutrition is a global problem. In both the developed world and the developing world, poverty and a lack of understanding of nutrition are the leading causes. We can help control the disease of malnutrition with better worldwide education and support for the disadvantaged, including access to clean water, nutritious whole foods and medicine. Children and elders who may not be able to advocate for themselves are especially at risk and may need closer attention paid to their diet and health condition. made by: mrinmayee s
  22. 22. Thank you

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