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Proceeding cum Abstract book: National Webinar on Cultivation of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (MAPs): An Innovative Effort towards Sustainable Development

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ISBN: 978-81-949290-0-0
National Webinar
on
Cultivation of Medicinal and Aromatic
Plants (MAPs): An Innovative Effort towa...
National Webinar on Cultivation of Medicinal and
Aromatic Plants (MAPs): An Innovative Effort towards
Sustainable Developm...
Chairman
Dr. Umesh Singh
Mandan Bharti Agriculture
Agwanpur, Saharsa, Bihar-852201
Editors
Dr. Mrinalini Kumari
Dr. Mukul ...
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Proceeding cum Abstract book: National Webinar on Cultivation of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (MAPs): An Innovative Effort towards Sustainable Development

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Medicinal & Aromatic Plants (MAPs) are botanical raw materials. They are also known as
herbal drugs and are predominately used for the therapeutic, aromatic and/or culinary
purposes such as components of cosmetics, medicinal products, health foods and other
natural health products. MAPs are the reservoirs of useful bioactive compounds which are
responsible for their remarkable potential properties/activities. MAPs can be an easily
accessible and cost effective source of promising therapeutic agents that can be used in
combating horrible diseases such as cancer and other infectious diseases caused by drugresistant
microorganisms etc. Recently, due to COVID-19 pandemic situation, people are
mainly concerned about their health, prevention of diseases, detox and longevity.
Consequently, MAPS are focussed and accepted in modern medicine and daily life. In view
of the increasing global demands on these important natural resources, attention should be
paid to the sustainable forms of production and utilization. This webinar intends to highlight
the innovations in the cultivation of MAPs and its utilization. It will be a valuable resource
for farmers, scientists, chemists, biochemists, pharmacists and students interested in
medicinal & aromatic plants and plant biology.

Medicinal & Aromatic Plants (MAPs) are botanical raw materials. They are also known as
herbal drugs and are predominately used for the therapeutic, aromatic and/or culinary
purposes such as components of cosmetics, medicinal products, health foods and other
natural health products. MAPs are the reservoirs of useful bioactive compounds which are
responsible for their remarkable potential properties/activities. MAPs can be an easily
accessible and cost effective source of promising therapeutic agents that can be used in
combating horrible diseases such as cancer and other infectious diseases caused by drugresistant
microorganisms etc. Recently, due to COVID-19 pandemic situation, people are
mainly concerned about their health, prevention of diseases, detox and longevity.
Consequently, MAPS are focussed and accepted in modern medicine and daily life. In view
of the increasing global demands on these important natural resources, attention should be
paid to the sustainable forms of production and utilization. This webinar intends to highlight
the innovations in the cultivation of MAPs and its utilization. It will be a valuable resource
for farmers, scientists, chemists, biochemists, pharmacists and students interested in
medicinal & aromatic plants and plant biology.

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Proceeding cum Abstract book: National Webinar on Cultivation of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (MAPs): An Innovative Effort towards Sustainable Development

  1. 1. ISBN: 978-81-949290-0-0 National Webinar on Cultivation of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (MAPs): An Innovative Effort towards Sustainable Development 01 September, 2020 Organized by Mandan Bharti Agriculture College, Agwanpur (Bihar Agricultural University Sabour, Bhagalpur-813210, Bihar) Editors: Dr. Mrinalini Kumari Dr. Mukul Kumar Dr. Shyam Babu Shah
  2. 2. National Webinar on Cultivation of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (MAPs): An Innovative Effort towards Sustainable Development (Proceeding cum Abstract Book) 01 September, 2020 Editors: Dr. Mrinalini Kumari Dr. Mukul Kumar Dr. Shyam Babu Shah (BAU Communication no. 912/201222) Mandan Bharti Agriculture College, Agwanpur, Saharsa (Bihar)-852201
  3. 3. Chairman Dr. Umesh Singh Mandan Bharti Agriculture Agwanpur, Saharsa, Bihar-852201 Editors Dr. Mrinalini Kumari Dr. Mukul Kumar Dr. Shyam Babu Shah (BAU Communication no. 912/201222) Technical Support Mr. Brijesh Kumar Tiwari Mr. Anjum Hasim Copyright @ 2020, Kumari, M All Right Reserved Mandan Bharti Agriculture College, Agwanpur, Saharsa ISBN: 978-81-949290-0-0
  4. 4. Contents Sl. No. Particulars Page No. 1. About the Webinar 01 Keynote Address 2. Boosting Medicinal Plants Cultivation under Make in India Campaign *N K Dubey 03-04 3. Agri-business Opportunities Through Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Based Technologies in Country * Sanjay Kumar 05 4. Potential and Prospects of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (M&APs) in the Orchards * A. K. Trivedi 06-07 5. Emerging role of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants as Immune Boosters *Poonam Singh 08 Theme 1: Understanding the innovative cultivation of MAPs 6. Standardization of planting methods and spacing of long pepper (Piper longum) *Bijit Kr. Saud 10 7. Integrated nutrient management in long pepper (Piper longum) *Bijit Kr. Saud 11 8. Study on the Genotypic, Phenotypic correlation and Path coefficient in Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) * G.P.Pandey 12 9. Pushkarmool (INDIAN ELECAMPANE): Little known medicinal and aromatic plant of Himalayan region *Harpal Singh 13 10. Cultivation and Medicinal Importance of Periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) *P. S. Markam 14-16 11. Automatic Classification of Medicinal Plants and its Cultivation for Future Sustainable Development *Kumar Sanjeev 17 12. Standardization of vegetative propagation of Guggul [Commiphora wightii (Arn.) Bhan.], a commercial important and threatened medicinal tree species *L.K. Behera 18 13. Gorgon Nut (Euryale ferox Salisb.) Cultivation as a Medicinal and Industrial Crop Can Boost the Agri-based Economy of Eastern India *Manoj Kumar 19-20 14. Cultivation of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: An Innovative Effort towards Sustainable Development *Rakesh Kumar 21-22 15. Organic Farming in Black Pepper (Piper nigrum L.) 23-24
  5. 5. *Vandana Yadav 16. Salient role of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants *Ajay Saroha 25 17. General overview of medicinal plants *Amerjeet Singh 26-28 18. Effectiveness of vegetative propagation methods for Giloy (Tinospora cordifolia) planting * A. A. Suvagiya 29 19. Macronutrients Nutrition Of Medicinal And Aromatic Plants *Amit Kumar Pandey 30 20. Studies on Genetic diversity and variability for yield and yield attributes in garlic (Allium sativum L.) under Dhampur condition * Deepak Kumar 31 21. Nitrogen fertilization in medicinal plant cultivation *Manoj Kumar 32 22. Impact of organic manures as quality determinants in Medicinal and Aromatic Plants *Ragini Kumari 33 23. Growing Of Tulsi/Basil Medicinal Plant by Different Methods of Cultivation Practices *Saurabh Toppo 34 24. Status of medicinal plants cultivation in Salem District of Tamil Nadu *G. Malathi 35-36 25. Participatory Approach for Adoption of Improved Technology of Turmeric Through Front Line Demonstration *Sunita Kumari 37 Theme 2: Innovative extraction methods of MAPs and their uses 26. Bioinformatics: A tool for a new era of plant based drug discovery *Ankita Sharma 39 27. Traditional versus innovative extraction methods of MAPs *Parul Mehra 40 28. Innovative extraction methods of MAPs and their uses *Pratibha Kumari 41 29. Improved tapping methods for extraction of oleo-gum resin in Salai guggul (Boswellia serrata Roxb.): A medicinal tree for pharmaceutical industries *S.K. Sinha 42-43 30. Innovative Extraction Method of MAPs and Their Uses *Swati Kumari 44 Theme 3: Conservation and sustainable utilization of MAPs 31. Collection of High Quality Mahua Flower in Shahdol District (MP) for Seasonal Livelihood Security *B.P Pandre 46 32. Integrated nutrient management on oil production and economics of basil (Ocimum sanctum) cultivation 47
  6. 6. *Nilay Kumar 33. Global initiatives for medicinal crops conservation *G. Roja Ramani 48-49 34. Comparing medicinal properties of plant extracted drugs *Jyoti Shekhawat 50 35. Antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citrates) oil *Nisha Jangre 51 36. Medicinal herbs: Globally valued potential source of therapeutic AIDS *Rehan 52 37. Medicinal Properties of Punarnava (Boerhaavia diffusa) *Romila Xess 53 38. Relevance of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants in COVID era *Rupesh 54 39. Advancement in Fruit Production through Growth Regulators *Sangeeta 55-56 40. Insecticidal property of parthenium hysterosphours and viex nigundi leaf extract (acetone) against Siophilus orzyae (rice weevil) *Sanket Surendra Deshmukh 57 41. Conservation and sustainable utilization of Medicinal and Aromatic plants *Yelakacherla Mounika 58 42. Mint – A Mircale Plant, *Vandana Yadav 59 43. Cursory Effect of Climate Change on Ecosystem and Biodiversity *Yugalkishor Lodhi 60 44. Medicinal values of Some important Aquatic plants of Muzaffarpur *Anima Kumari 61 45. Conservation and Sustainable Utilization of MAPs *Ansar Ahmed 62-63 46. Effect of medicinal plants or herbs on potential health benefits * Archana 64-67 47. Relevance of Sustainable Use of Medicinal Plants For Ayurveda * Shital Ghorband 68 48. Bergenia ciliata: Himalayan valuable medicinal herb and its conservation * Kajal Mog Chaudhuri 69 49. Aloe vera and its health benefits *Mina Kumari 70 50. Medicinal properties of Acampe Sp: - A rare medicinal orchid *Mohita Srivastava 71 51. Activity of Medicinal Plant extracts against pathogenic fungi in maize seeds (zea mays L.) *Nitu Kumari 72 52. Medicinal plants as human health booster *Shyama Kumari 73-74
  7. 7. Theme 4: Role of MAPs as Immune Boosters 53. Importance of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants for immune booster *Aryama Bharti 76-77 54. Medicinal Aromatic Plants (MAPs) and human wellbeing * Karuna Gautam 78 55. Role of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants as Immune Boosters *Manish Raj 79 56. Immunomodulatory properties of fenugreek *Neha 80 57. Traditional Medicinal Packages as Immune Boosters * Nimisha Roslin Benny 81 58. Use of different medicinal plants as immunity boosters *Shikha Jain 82 59. Role of MAPs as immune boosters *Tanya Gupta 83 60. Role of Medicinal Plants : As Rasayana (Immuno-modulators) in Ayurveda *Narayan Jadhav 84 61. Immunomodulators: Role of Medicinal Plants as Immune Boosters *Ritu kumari 85-86 62. Curcumin act as preventive measure against COVID 19 disease *Niru Kumari 87 Key recommendations 88
  8. 8. M.B.A.C., AGWANPUR 1 About the Webinar Medicinal & Aromatic Plants (MAPs) are botanical raw materials. They are also known as herbal drugs and are predominately used for the therapeutic, aromatic and/or culinary purposes such as components of cosmetics, medicinal products, health foods and other natural health products. MAPs are the reservoirs of useful bioactive compounds which are responsible for their remarkable potential properties/activities. MAPs can be an easily accessible and cost effective source of promising therapeutic agents that can be used in combating horrible diseases such as cancer and other infectious diseases caused by drug- resistant microorganisms etc. Recently, due to COVID-19 pandemic situation, people are mainly concerned about their health, prevention of diseases, detox and longevity. Consequently, MAPS are focussed and accepted in modern medicine and daily life. In view of the increasing global demands on these important natural resources, attention should be paid to the sustainable forms of production and utilization. This webinar intends to highlight the innovations in the cultivation of MAPs and its utilization. It will be a valuable resource for farmers, scientists, chemists, biochemists, pharmacists and students interested in medicinal & aromatic plants and plant biology. The webinar was conducted under following thematic areas: ❖ Understanding the innovative cultivation of MAPs. ❖ Innovative extraction methods of MAPs and their uses. ❖ Conservation and sustainable utilization of MAPs ❖ Role of MAPs as Immune boosters This proceedings-cum-abstract book contains the abstract of keynote lectures delivered by eminent speakers and submitted by the participant during the National Webinar held on 01 September 2020. The outcome of this webinar in a form of proceedings has been included at the end of this book.
  9. 9. M.B.A.C., AGWANPUR 2 Keynote address
  10. 10. M.B.A.C., AGWANPUR 3 Boosting Medicinal Plants Cultivation under Make in India Campaign N. K. Dubey Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005 Email:nkdubeybhu@gmail.com; Mob: 9415295765 The progressive “Make in India” campaign aims to turn the country into a global manufacturing hub. The vision behind this campaign is to put the country on the global manufacturing map, thereby, to facilitate the inflow of new technology and capital and creating a large number of jobs. Agricultural and pharmaceutical sectors are two important pillars on which human civilization is built up. India is a mega- biodiversity rich country and has varied climatic zones comprising approximately 17000-18000 species of flowering plants of which 6000-7000 are estimated to have medicinal usage in folk practices. In India, around 25,000 effective plant-based formulations are used in traditional and folk medicine and the country enjoys an important position in the global pharmaceuticals sector. However, exploration of phyto-chemicals is currently gaining momentum in the agriculture sector also so as to formulate some novel plant based green pesticides for the management of agricultural pests In view of post application side effects such as pest resistance , residual toxicity, non – biodegradable nature, ozone layer depleting effects, disruption of ecological balance and interference with the reproduction of non target species, most of the synthetic chemicals ( often called as grey chemicals or xenobiotics) used as pesticides have their own limitations . Hence, exploration of plant products (green chemicals) is gaining importance so as to formulate some novel plant based pesticides for the sustainable management of agriculture pests . Plant based formulations are chiefly biodegradable and are recognized as better sustainable and eco-friendly alternatives of synthetic pesticides in food security. The most attractive aspect of using such plant chemicals in agricultural pests management is their mode of action as semiochemical or behaviour altering inhibiting the growth and metabolism of pests without killing them. Such growth regulatory approach in pest control is being more
  11. 11. M.B.A.C., AGWANPUR 4 accepted currently. Rotenone (root of Derris elliptica), nicotine (leaves of Nicotiana tabacum), pyrethrins (flower of Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium), azadirachtin (seeds of Azardiracta indica), piperine (seeds of Piper nigrum), eugenol (clove essential oil), and menthol (Mentha sps. essential oil) are some plants-derived commercially available bioactive compounds used in agri-food industries Cinnamon, clove, lemongrass, oregano, thyme, nutmeg, basil, carvone, cinnamaldehyde, citral, eugenol, limonene, menthol, linalool, etc. are kept in generally recognised as safe (GRAS) and are used as preservatives in United State with wide coverage. Biodiversity rich countries like India, China, Sri Lanka, Brazil, and Africa have n a vast traditional knowledge on use of plants and their products in agriculture in pest control. Hence, there is a lot of scope for India to achieve global leadership in the field of green pesticides to be sustainably and eco-friendly used in agriculture sector. Looking in to different acts of biopiracy exploiting indigenous knowledge on herbal products without recognition of the owner country, there is need for bioprospection of Indian flora for novel formulations to be used in agriculture as well as pharma sector.
  12. 12. M.B.A.C., AGWANPUR 5 Agri-business Opportunities through Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Based Technologies in Country Sanjay Kumar Principal Scientist, Technology Dissemination, CSIR-Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (CIMAP), P.O. –CIMAP, Lucknow-226015 Email: sanjaykumar@cimap.res.in Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (MAPs) cultivation are gaining momentum in the country from last two decades. Due to diverse climatic conditions and availability of the resources in the country, there are great opportunities of medicinal and aromatic plants based business/ entrepreneurship development in the country. CSIR-CIMAP with its continuing efforts has been promoting the cultivation of the medicinal and aromatic plants in different parts of country. Several medicinal and aromatic plants are being cultivated in large area in the country especially Menthol mint in about 2,90,000 lakhs hectares, Vetiver in about 5000 hectares., Tulsi ( Basil) in about 6000 hectares., Lemongrass in about 10,000 hectares, Palmarosa in about 4000 hectares, Ashwagandha 4000, Isabgole 60000, senna about 20,000 hectares, Sataver 1500 hectares, Kalmegh 1000 hectares and Aloe-vera 3000 hectares, etc. It is estimated that more than six lakhs farm families are directly involved in cultivation of these plants in the country. Some crop specific cluster has been developed by CSIR –CIMAP in different part of country like Vetiver and Mint clusters in Bihar, Palmaorsa cluster in Kutch and Sorashtra in Gujarat. Lemongrass clusters in Jharkhand and Chattisgarh, Mint cluster in tribal area of Dudhwa Tiger Reserve. Ashwagandha Cluster in Telangana and Ahdhra Pradesh. This will results in sustainable cultivation of important medicinal and aromatic plants in the country that directly benefits the farmers and also ensure the availability of the quality raw material for pharma and aroma industry. Apart from this youth can adopt the business opportunities in processing and product development through medicinal and aromatic plants. This paper will emphasize the agri-business opportunities through cultivation and processing of medicinal and aromatic plants in the country for boosting the farmer’s income.
  13. 13. M.B.A.C., AGWANPUR 6 Potential and Prospects of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (M&APs) in the Orchards A. K. Trivedi ICAR-Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture Rehmankhera, Lucknow-226101 E-mail: ak.trivedi@icar.gov.in India is endowed with diversified weather, soils and enormously rich flora including exotic medicinal and aromatic plants. However, so far full potential of available natural resources has not been properly harnessed by local communities. Increasing demand has resulted in exploitation of economically important medicinal and aromatic plants at a fast pace which leads many plants to the endangered status. During recent years, globally increasing interest of researchers and farmers has added new dimension for commercialization, conservation and judicious exploitation of herbal wealth. The increasing demand of herbal products in near future is undisputable and requires better understanding of these crops. Hence, wide awareness and community participation is essential for the rational utilization and better conservation strategies of medicinal and aromatic plants (M&APs). Due to diversified use of botanically derived molecules and compounds in pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, cosmeceutical and agro-chemical industry, there are enormous opportunities for employment and income generation in this sector. Farmers in different areas have limited choice for crops, although wide range of medicinal and aromatic crops can be grown in these areas as nontraditional crops, intercrops or seasonal crops. This needs identification, collection, characterization and conservation of potential crops from different locations and standardization of their agro-techniques for adoption at large scale in specific agro-climatic conditions. Mango is most important fruit of India and is known as “King of fruits”. In India mango is cultivated in 2,258 thousand ha and production is around 21822 thousand MT per year (Govt.
  14. 14. M.B.A.C., AGWANPUR 7 of India 2018). It is one of the most important fruits of tropical and subtropical regions of the world grown in more than 100 countries of which more than 65 countries produce each more than 1,000 MT a year (Mitra 2016). Under traditional system of mango plantation, ample space is available between rows as well as between trees. Furthermore, fruit trees, invariably after a certain period of successful fruit production, have a tendency to lose their productivity depending upon the species, making the orchards unproductive and non-remunerative. In addition, mango trees require long gestation period to come in bearing. Hence, this available space may be utilized for growing seasonal or perennial medicinal and aromatic herbs/ shrubs till mango plants attain bearing stage/ full economic potential which will create additional opportunities and additional income as well. The intercropping is profitable in case of other annual and perennial herbs and shrubs also. This practice enhances the net profit and reduces the risk of crop failure under adverse conditions. Useful medicinal and aromatic plants may be available in our surroundings; however, due to lack of awareness collection, conservation, evaluation and popularization of such precious material could not gain momentum. Several medicinal and aromatic plant species have potential which can be cultivated in orchard system. Twenty M&AP species have been evaluated to assess the feasibility for cultivation as intercrop in mango orchards. Among these, turmeric (Curcuma longa), shatavaree (Asparagus officinalis), ziminkand (Amorphophallus titanium), ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) have been widely adopted by farmers. These and other such species may play vital role for enhancing farmer’s income in mango based cropping system. In addition, a holistic approach is required to manage the rich heritage of medicinal and aromatic plant wealth.
  15. 15. M.B.A.C., AGWANPUR 8 Emerging role of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants as Immune Boosters Sarika Srivastava and Poonam Singh* * Professor of Zoology, MMV, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221 005, India Email:poonom@gmail.com Immunity is the state of protection against infectious diseases. A group of cells, tissues, organs and soluble mediators develop the immune system involved in protection of animals from the attack of injurious microorganisms, present in the surrounding. The harmful pathogens invade the body of the host for nourishment and for raising their progeny that threaten the integrity of the organism and may cause mild to severe diseases due to vulnerable immunity. The balanced and strengthened immune system is adequate to fight with these pathogens. Hence it becomes essential to keep the immune system strong by using prescribed and alternative therapies. Several synthetic, allopathic medicines are available that combat with the pathogens effectively however, may be having certain side effects. Since ancient time, medicinal plants have been used for health benefits and according to WHO, around 80% of the world’s population is using herbal medicines for primary health care, particularly across Europe and South Asia. Uses of herbal medicines have become a promising strategy as an integrative, complementary and preventive therapy. These are cheap, beneficial and easily available. The medicinal and aromatic plants are with numerous active phytochemicals, possessing polysaccharides, flavonoids, polyphenols, alkaloids etc., that are helpful in building up the body’s natural immunity. The immune boosting properties of certain commonly occurring medicinal plants have been discussed.
  16. 16. M.B.A.C., AGWANPUR 9 Theme 1 Understanding the innovative cultivation of MAPs
  17. 17. M.B.A.C., AGWANPUR 10 Standardization of planting methods and spacing of long pepper (Piper longum) Bijit Kr. Saud and Pranjal Kr Kaman AICRP on MAP and Betelvine, AAU, Jorhat Email Id: bijit1969@rediffmail.com An experiment was conducted in the Experimental Farm (Horticulture), Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat for standardization of planting method and spacing of long pepper under Assam condition for two years. Two planting methods viz. with support and without support were practiced in two factors RBD with three replications. The crop geometry was 40 x 40 cm, 60 x 40 cm, 60 x 60 cm and 90 x 60 cm. The result revealed that there were significant differences were noticed due to two studied factors. The maximum dry yield (516.59 kg/ha) was obtained in the crop with support in the crop geometry 60x40cm. The minimum dry yield (363.25 Kg/ha) was obtained in the crop without support in the crop geometry 90 x 60cm. However, the benefit: cost ratio (1.89) was better in the planting method “Without Support” as compared to “With Support”(1.84). Hence, the crop geometry 60x40cm without support is economically feasible planting system for Assam condition.
  18. 18. M.B.A.C., AGWANPUR 11 Integrated nutrient management in long pepper (Piper longum) Bijit Kr Saud and Pranjal Kr Kaman AICRP on MAP and Betelvine, AAU, Jorhat Email Id: bijit1969@rediffmail.com An experiment was conducted in the Experimental Farm (Horticulture), Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat for Integrated nutrient management in long pepper. Twelve number of treatment combinations was practiced viz T1: FYM 10 ha-1 , T2: Neem cake 5q ha-1 T3: FYM 10 t/ha + Neem cake 5q ha-1 T4: NPK 100:50:50 kg ha-1 T5: NPK 100:75:75 kg ha-1 T6: NPK 100:50:50 kg ha-1 + FYM 10 ha-1 T7: NPK 100:50:50 kg ha-1 + Neem cake 5q ha-1 T8: NPK 100:50:50 kg ha-1 + FYM 10 ha-1 + Neem cake 5q ha-1 T9: NPK 150:75:75 kg ha-1 + FYM 10 ha-1 T10: NPK 150:75:75 kg ha-1 + Neem cake 5q ha-1 T11: NPK 175:75:75 kg ha-1 + FYM 10 ha-1 + Neem cake 5q ha-1 T12:Control (RDF). There were significant differences in yield and yield attributing characters of the Piper longum due to different INM treatments. Among the INM treatments the maximum dry yield (522.89 kg/ha) was obtained in the treatment T11 (NPK 175:75:75 kg ha-1 + FYM 10 ha-1 + Neem cake 5q ha-1 ) along with maximum benefit :cost ratio 2.61. The dry yield was minimum (315.24 kg/ha) in the treatment T1: FYM 10 ha-1 and minimum benefit : cost ratio1.47. Hence, the treatment T11: NPK 175:75:75 kg ha-1 + FYM 10 ha-1 + Neem cake 5q ha-1 was found suitable for cultivation of Piper longum in Assam condition.
  19. 19. M.B.A.C., AGWANPUR 12 Study on the Genotypic, Phenotypic correlation and Path coefficient in Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan (L.). G.P.Pandey*, Shubham Dwivedi*, H.M.Singh** and T.S.Mishra*** *M.G.C.G.V Chitrkoot Satna, M.P **N.H.R.D.F Patna Bihar ***KVK West Kameng Dirang Arunachal Pradesh Pigeonpea or red gram [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp] is one of the important pulse crop. The Experiment was conducted at Agriculture Farm, Nana Ji Deshmukh New Agriculture Campus, Mahatma Gandhi Chitrakoot Gramodaya Vishwavidyalaya, Chitrakoot, Satna to evaluate the Thirty genotypes/varieties under normal soil and rain fed condition. The experiment was laid out fallowing Randomized Block Design (RBD) with three replications during Kharif 2018, The place of experiment in Chitrakoot is situated at 250 10' North latitude and 800 85' East longitude. The altitude is about 200m above mean sea level The experiment was sown on 29th , July, 2018 and harvested on 18th ,February,2019 . Each treatment was grown in 4 m long 6 rows per plot spaced 90 cm apart. The plant to plant distance was maintained 25cm by thinning. Recommended agronomic cultural practices and plant protection measures were adopted to raise a best crop. Observation were recorded Days to 50% flowering,Number of primary branches per plant, Number of secondary branches per plant:, Number of pods per plant, Plant height(Cm), Days to Maturity (DM),100-Seed weight (g) and Seed yield (kg/ha). On the basis of above per se varieties- ICPL 87119, LRG 134 and BDN 2013-1 and BRGL 18-1 are found suitable and best performer in terms of yield and yield contributing characters in agro-climatic condition of Chitrakoot.
  20. 20. M.B.A.C., AGWANPUR 13 Pushkarmool (INDIAN ELECAMPANE): Little known medicinal and aromatic plant of Himalyan region Harpal Singh*, Bhupender Dutt** *Department of Agriculture, Baba Farid College, Bathinda, Punjab, India **Department of Forest Products, Dr YS Parmar University of Horticulture & Forestry Nauni, Solan, H.P.-173230 Email: hari85bfgi@gmail.com Inula is a large genus of 100 species distributed throughout Europe, Asia and Africa. Twenty species have been reported to be occurring wild in India, of which five are considered to be of economic value. Three species i.e, Inula racemosa, Inula royleana and Inula grandii occur in Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand. Among these species, I.racemoca commonly known as Pushkarmool has gained importance as a medicinal and aromatic plant, and is cultivated on a small scale in some parts of North Western Himalayas. The domesticated forms of these incipient cultigens have been selected by the natives from the wild types which occur on stony, alpine and scrub vegetation in the cold arid habitat between 2700 – 3500 m amsl. It is Therapeutically Pushkarmool is an aromatic tonic, febrifuge, and expectorant with anti- inflammatory, carminative, diuretic, and antiseptic properties. The plant is used in chronic bronchitis and rheumatism. Dried rhizomes and roots are used to cure loss of appetite and stomach troubles. The fragrant aromatic root of this plant is also reported to find a place in herbal based cosmocentricals. Thus, present work is based on the literature and personal surveys conducted on this important plant species so to highlight its scope in the fast growing pharmaceutical industries.
  21. 21. M.B.A.C., AGWANPUR 14 Cultivation and Medicinal Importance of Periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) P. S. Markam, Sukalu Ram Netam College of Agriculture and Research Station, Kanker, (C.G.) Corresponding E-mail: markamphoolsingh@gmail.com Periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus.) is an important annual/perinnial shrub belonging to family Apocynaceae. Periwinkle Popularly known as Sadabahar and Nayantara, this flower is not only beautiful and attractive but its leaves, stems and roots also considered rich in medicinal properties. Medicinal properties are usually found in the entire plant except for flowers. It produces nearly 130 alkaloids including ajmaline, serpentine, reserpine, vindoline, vincristine, and vinblastin. The leaves of evergreen also contain an alkaline substance called ‘wickerstein’ which is very useful in cancer, especially blood cancer (leukemia). The most interesting thing is that it has also been found useful in the treatment of diabetes. It is beneficial in reducing blood sugar as well as in reducing high blood pressure. Chew three to four leaves of the plant on an empty stomach, this will help to manage blood sugar levels. Varieties-White flowered, Purple flowered and Nirmal are the three types of periwinkle varieties. ‘Nirmal’ and ‘Dhawal’ are the released cultivars of white flowered type developed by CIMAP are commercial varieties of sadabahar. Soil and Climate- it can grow in a variety of soils and climates. However, its growth is better in tropical and sub-tropical areas. The plant also grows in sub-tropical areas of northern India but the growth is slow due to extremely low temperature during the winter. It can be grown in any type of soil except those which are highly saline, alkaline or water-logged. Light soils, which are rich in humus, are preferable for large scale cultivation, since harvesting of the roots become easy. A well distributed rainfall of 100 cm or more is ideal if the plant is to be grown as a rainfed crop. Seed Sowing - Direct sowing can be adopted during the monsoon months, particularly if large area has to be cultivated. About 2.5 kg of seeds are required per hectare. Seeds are mixed with about 25 kg of fine, moist sand to ensure even distribution. Seeds are sown in rows 45 cm apart; subsequently seedlings are thinned maintaining a distance of 30 cm between plant to plant. Nursery Raising and Transplanting- If seeds are scarce and irrigation
  22. 22. M.B.A.C., AGWANPUR 15 facility is available, transplanting can be adopted with advantage since only about 500 gm of seeds will be enough to plant one hectare. Seeds are sown in nursery beds, two months before transplanting. An area of about 200 sqm under nursery gives enough seedlings for transplanting one hectare land. The seeds take about ten days to germinate and about 60 days to reach transplanting stage. Transplanting is done at 45X30 cm spacing. One hectare requires about 74,000 seedlings. Manuring- Apply FYM at 20 t/ha and N, P and K at 25:50:75 kg/ha as basal dose. On 60 days after transplanting apply 50 kg N as top dressing. Irrigation- Places where rainfall is evenly distributed throughout the year, the plants do not require any irrigation. However, the areas where the monsoon is restricted to a particular period, 4-5 irrigations once in fifteen days during February, March and April months are needed to get optimum yield. Interculture Operations- The first weeding is done after about 60 days from sowing or transplanting and the second after additional 60 days. Diseases and Pest Control: The plant is generally resistant to the attack of various pests and diseases. Occasionally, some plants have been found to suffer from 'Little leaf' disease, resulting in stunted growth of the plant. The disease can be checked from spreading by uprooting and destroying the affected plants and spraying organic phosphorus insecticides once in 15 days when the infection is prevalent. A, die- back, caused. by Pythium aphanidermatum Edson Fitzp., has been found to affect the crop during the monsoon. It is observed that mulching between the rows with any straw reduces the incidence of die-back to a considerable degree. Harvesting and Management- The crop is harvested after about 12 months from sowing. The crop is cut at about 7.5 cm above the ground and dried in shade. The field is then copiously irrigated and when it reaches at proper moisture level, it is ploughed and the roots are collected. The roots are washed thoroughly and dried in shade. If there is demand for leaves, two leaf-stripping can be done. After harvesting, the whole plant is dried in shade. At this stage, light threshing will separate the seeds, which can be used for the next sowing. The leaves and stems are also then separately collected. Seeds collected this way will have fruits of various degrees of maturity and hence will have poor percentage of germination. It is, therefore, advisable that only mature pods should be collected during two or three months before the crop is harvested. be taken, the first one after 6 months and the second one after 9 months from sowing. Post-harvest Management: After harvesting, the whole plant is dried in shade. At this stage, light threshing will separate the seeds, which can be used for the
  23. 23. M.B.A.C., AGWANPUR 16 next sowing. The leaves and stems are also then separately collected. Seeds collected this way will have fruits of various degrees of maturity and hence will have poor percentage of germination. It is, therefore, advisable that only mature pods should be collected during two or three months before the crop is harvested. Yield: Under irrigated conditions, about 1.5 tonnes of leaves, and 0.5 tonnes of roots on air-dry basis are obtained per hectare. The yield of leaves and roots under rainfed conditions is 0.75 t/ha each on air-dry basis.
  24. 24. M.B.A.C., AGWANPUR 17 Automatic Classification of Medicinal Plants and its Cultivation for Future Sustainable Development Kumar Sanjeev1 , Suneeta Paswan2 , Pramod Prabhakar1 , Arun Paswan3 1 Assistant Professor, Mandan Bharti Agriculture College, Agwanpur, Saharsa, Bihar 2 Subject Matter Specialist, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Agwanpur, Saharsa, Bihar 3 Assistant Professor, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Central Agricultural University, Pusa, Samastipur, Bihar Medicinal plants are the main source of traditional Indian medicine, which provides the basic protection of human health. The research and application of medicinal plant classification methodology has important implications in the resource preservation.This initially requires data about various plant varieties, so that they could be monitored, protected and can be used for future. Plants form the backbone of Ayurveda and today's Modern-day medicine and are a great source of revenue. Due to Deforestation and Pollution, lot of medicinal plant varieties have almost become extinct. So, there is an urgent need for us to identify them and regrow them for the use of future generations. In evolution towards sustainable agriculture system it was clear that important contributions can be made by using emerging technologies. Image processing is a computerized new technology which helps in automatic identification of plants species based on colour, texture and shape of plants parts. It uses different classifier like Artificial Neural Network (ANN), K-Nearest Neighbour (KNN), Support Vector machine (SVM) etc for recognition of plant species. It is useful in prediction, classification and identification of image-based disease, leaf, stem, root, fruits of plants. We hope that this technology will be helpful for medicinal plant cultivation for future sustainable development.
  25. 25. M.B.A.C., AGWANPUR 18 Standardization of vegetative propagation of Guggul [Commiphora wightii (Arn.) Bhan.], a commercial important and threatened medicinal tree species L.K. Behera, A.A. Mehta, C.A. Dholariya, M. Sukhadiya and R.P. Gunaga College of Forestry, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari- 396 450 Email: lkbehera@nau.in Guggul (Commiphora wightii Family: Burseraceae) is one of the slow growing medicinal tree species. Habit of the plant is highly branched and spiny shrub to a small tree. Oleo-gum resin produced by the guggal tree is anti-inflammatory and efficacious in the treatment of arthritis, rheumatism, hyperlipidemia, thrombosis and hypercholesterolemia. Moreover, it has alterative, carminative, astringent and antispasmodic properties. Guggul is an integral part of Ayurvedic treatment and also used in Unani and Siddha. The availability of this species in the forest is declining day by day and it may be due to poor seed setting, lower germination rate, heavy forest destruction and other factors. Moreover, this species is categorized as threatened plant. Therefore, cultivation and domestication of this medicinal plant is necessary. Propagation by seeds and vegetative means is generally followed for multiplication of plants in large scale. In the present study, vegetative propagation of C. wightii through semi hardwood branch cuttings was undertaken in the forest nursery of College of Forestry, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari during 2020. Total five treatments of different concentration of IBA (control, 500, 1000, 1500, 2000 ppm) in three repetitions following Completely Randomised Design were adopted. Results showed that maximum establishment of 90 per cent with more number of leaves (35.13) and branches (3.25) along with more height (81.60cm) were recorded in semi-hardwood branch cutting of C. wightii treated with IBA@1000 ppm as compared to other treatments. Therefore, C. wightii can be propagated by semi-hardwood cuttings at 1000ppm IBA for production of planting materials. In fact, this technique is highly useful for multiplication of clones of this species.
  26. 26. M.B.A.C., AGWANPUR 19 Gorgon Nut (Euryale ferox Salisb.) Cultivation as a Medicinal and Industrial Crop Can Boost the Agri-based Economy of Eastern India Manoj Kumar ICAR Research Complex for Eastern Region, Research Centre for Makhana, Darbhanga-846005, Bihar, India Email: manoj.kumar24@icar.gov.in; mkumar_iari@yahoo.co.in Gorgon Nut (Euryale ferox Salisb.), commonly known as makhana, is cultivated in many parts of the world including China, Russia, Japan, South Korea, Bangladesh and India. In India it’s mostly cultivated in eastern part, including Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Manipur and Tripura, though its cultivation has been reported from Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jammu and Kashmir also. Commercial cultivation of makhana is mostly confined in the northern part of Bihar where it’s cultivated in nearly 15,000 ha area, involving a huge number of farm families in its processing. In this region, makhana is cultivated exclusively for its seeds which are transformed into makhana pops by roasting and popping, ignoring altogether the potential medicinal and industrial uses of other plant parts such as leaf, pedicel, peduncle, seed coat etc. Moreover, the seeds (popped) are also used just as dry fruit, without giving considerations to its other potential uses which could be even more remunerative. India reportedly contributes 90% to the global makhana production; however, it’s China who is exploiting the potential medicinal and industrial uses of this miracle crop better than us. Phenolic extract from the seed coat of Euryale ferox has been found to possess antioxidant and anti-fatigue activities. Makhana is also known for its aphrodisiac and spermatogenic properties which are beneficial in curing male impotency. It has a high amino acid index but a low glycemic value. Makhana also carries medicinal values against cardiovascular and diabetes-related diseases. Makhana powder, with a high volume to mass ratio, is being considered as a reliable system for drug delivery. Non- effervescent floating matrix tablets have recently been developed based on makhana seeds. Essential oils extracted from makhana seeds have been found to have antioxidant, cytotoxic, and
  27. 27. M.B.A.C., AGWANPUR 20 protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitory activities. Activated carbon from seed shell of makhana can also be prepared which could be used as an adsorbent for pollutant molecules apart from its many other industrial uses. Thus the need is to create infrastructure and awareness to exploit the alternative and more remunerative uses of makhana seed and other plant parts which would create huge entrepreneurship opportunities in north Bihar and other parts of eastern India. Makhana merits enough to be viewed and cultivated not just as an aquatic fruit but also as an industrial and medicinal crop which would certainly boost the agri-based economy of eastern India, particularly north Bihar.
  28. 28. M.B.A.C., AGWANPUR 21 Cultivation of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: An Innovative Effort towards Sustainable Development Rakesh Kumar Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour 813210 Several hundred genera are used in herbal remedies and in traditional medicines throughout the world. They are used in the form of crude drugs, which are dried parts of the medicinal plants (root, stem, wood, bark, leaves, flowers, fruits, seeds, and, in some cases, whole plants) or their extracts. There is a much smaller number of plants from which individual active constituents are isolated and used as medicines, either alone or in combination. The species used for the isolation of active ingredients may be indigenous species growing wild or cultivated, or hybrids or other cultivated varieties that have been bred for a particular characteristic. Today, the world witnesses a global resurgence of interests in plant-based drugs and cosmetics. The revival of traditional health care systems, which is mainly plant-based, has several ramifications including the challenging tasks of meeting the health care needs of the ever increasing human population. Since the majority of raw material for preparing herbal medicine is exploited from the wild and also the traditional practices of medicinal plants harvesting does not remain sustainable due to commercial interests, the loss of medicinal plants is unprecedented. A person across the world use medicinal plants in several health care practices, and the loss of this valuable resource has direct bearings on these traditional health care systems. This book deals with multidisciplinary approach and contains information on different aspects of medicinal plants, which can be used as guiding tools. In India, many government and nongovernment organizations have had the focused attention on improving the medicinal plants sector Opportunities for funding have been created to assist the person who is willing to work and to build capacity of the medicinal plants sector. According to the mandate of the National Medicinal Plants Board, the projects may be submitted for funding within two major schemes: a promotional scheme and a commercial scheme. The major thrust
  29. 29. M.B.A.C., AGWANPUR 22 areas within the promotional scheme are (1) survey and inventory of medicinal plants, (2) in situ conservation and exsitu cultivation of selected medicinal plants, (3) production of quality planting material, (4) diffusion of knowledge through education and communication, (5) promotion of global and domestic market system, and (6) strengthening research, development, and man power. Within the commercial scheme, the major thrust areas are (1) bulk production of medicinal plants and ensuring supply of quality planting material, (2) expansion of selected medicinal plants farming areas, (3) value addition in harvesting, processing, and marketing of medicinal plants, and (4) developing an innovative marketing mechanism .
  30. 30. M.B.A.C., AGWANPUR 23 Organic Farming in Black Pepper (Piper nigrum L.) Vandana Yadav, Nisha Jangre, Mukti Lata Tirkey Department of Vegetable Science, IGKV, Raipur Email: vandanayadav1025@gmail.com Organic farming methods combine scientific knowledge of ecology and some modern technology with traditional farming practices based on naturally occurring biological processes. It is a natural alternative agriculture which lower production cost and at the same time achieve product of high quality and yield with lower or without the usage of inorganic fertilizers and pesticides. Organic Farming approach must be able to convert a degraded soil ecosystem. Effective Microorganism, generally in liquid form, contains a variety of lactic acid bacteria, yeasts, and phototrophic bacteria that can be applied as inoculants to increase the microbial diversity of soil ecosystem. Organic Farming to enhance the predominance of beneficial and effective microorganisms can help to improve and maintain soil biological, chemical, and physical properties. There is a wealth of microorganisms including bacteria, fungi, algae, and protozoa as well as macrofauna such as earthworms, snails, slugs, insects, spiders, centipede, and millipede living in it. Fungi such as mycorrhizae and bacteria (Rhizobia), Azotobacter, and earthworms are known to contribute to the fertility of the soil. The proper and regular addition of organic amendments is often an important part of any strategy to ensure the survival of newly introduced microorganism. Pepper is a nutrient demanding crop, especially during fruit setting. For optimal growth and yield, it requires sufficient amounts of macronutrients and micronutrients. Therefore all crop residues and farm wastes available on the farm including branches and leaves from pepper vines can be recycled, so that soil fertility is restored and maintained. Intensive use of chemicals fertilizer causes the ecosystem to be degraded and therefore not suitable for newly introduced
  31. 31. M.B.A.C., AGWANPUR 24 microbial communities to live in because these microbes may not be able to withstand the intolerable pH, moisture, and temperature conditions of degraded soils. So there is strong belief that organic Farming can ensure very productive pepper cultivation, clean environment, increase profits of pepper growers, and at the same time make healthy and fresh organic produces. Therefore, it is important to set up and properly sustain pepper cultivation practices under organic farming to reduce investment on chemical based inputs and at the same time lower the environmental hazard caused by pesticides, weedicides, fungicides, and inorganic fertilizers.
  32. 32. M.B.A.C., AGWANPUR 25 Salient role of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Ajay Saroha Student, Department of Agriculture Maharishi Markandeshwar University, Sadopur, Ambala Plants have been used by the mankind since prehistoric times for getting relief from sufferings and ailments. The herbal products today imply well being in distinction to the synthetics that are think as unsafe to human and environment. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (MAPs) are also botanical raw materials also known as herbal drugs. That are primarily used for therapeutic aromaticand appetizing purposes as ingredientof cosmetics, medicinal products, health foods and other natural health products. Herbs have been used prevalently as home remedies to treat seasonal diseases like cough, cold, stomachache in several countries of Asia, Europe and Africa. MAPs include wide range of plants for fragrance and medicinal uses during the modern times by identifying the therapeutic ingredients in plants that play a crucial role. MAPs are high value crops harbouring goldmines of the secondary metabolites. The natural products obtained from these crop are low volume high value commodities and have been subsequently exploited by human for their beneficial roles in traditional and modern medicine. MAPs posses those active principles which are having antibacterial and anti- mutagenic activities. These plants can be easily accessible therapeutic agents that can be diseases such as cancer and other infectious diseases caused by drug resistant microorganisms. People can find many hidden benefits when they put the seasoning into their meal. The spices are good for body to keep the digestion, blood circulation and immune system. With the virtuous therapy, people can get optimal active compound contained in those seasonings. This can be a good prevention from many diseases. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants covers all aspects of medicinal crop cultivation, medicinal uses of plants, their active ingredients and related industries. Considering the importance of immunity boosting measures during the COVID-19, it is very important to consume herbal medicine like Easier to obtain than prescription medicine, Stabilizes hormones and metabolism, Natural healing, Strength in immune system, Fewer side effects.
  33. 33. M.B.A.C., AGWANPUR 26 General overview of medicinal plants Amerjeet Singh1 , Bilkees Ayoub2 , Sajad Ahmad Gangoo3 1 Assistant ProfessorDivision of Forest products and utilization,Faculty of forestry ,SKUAST- Kashmir,India 2 M.Sc.StudentDivision of Forest products and utilization,Faculty of forestry ,SKUAST- Kashmir,India 3 Professor and Head Division of Forest products and utilization,Faculty of forestry ,SKUAST- Kashmir,India Medicinal and aromatic plants serve as nature's gift to humans to help them pursue better healthand continues to provide front line pharmacotherapy for millions of people worldwide. Plant kingdom comprised of approximately 2, 50 000 plant species and only around 10% have been studied for treatment of different diseases. Globally 60,000 species are used for their medicinal, nutritional and aromatic properties. According to the WHO, more than 80% of the world’s population relies on traditional medicine for their primary healthcare needs. In addition thirty percent of the drugs sold worldwide contain compounds derived from plant material. The demand for herbal medicines is rising drastically, fuelled by factors such as health promotion, disease prevention, poor outcomes and limited treatment options for a serious illness, exhaustion of conventional therapies, dissatisfaction with, or lack of efficacy of conventional therapies, significant side effects or risks associated with conventional medicine, belief that herbal and natural products are better or safer, preference for personal involvement in the decision-making process, and cultural or spiritual preference. As a result of the expanding interest in medicinal and aromatic plants, new income generating opportunities are opening up for rural populations. In addition every year, more than 500,000 tons of material from MAP species is traded and the global market for traditional medicine was estimated at US$ 83 billion annually (2008), with a rate of exponential increase. Continuously growing demand for plant derived therapeutic molecules obtained in a sustainable and eco- friendly manner favours development of innovative extraction techniques to obtain phytoconstituents as plants are an exceptionally viable source of biologically active natural
  34. 34. M.B.A.C., AGWANPUR 27 products. Over 8000 phenolic compounds derived from medicinal plants are being used currently in the phytotherapy. Additionally, the development and optimization of innovative techniques for the isolation of high value phytoconstituents is focused on two approaches. The first is biotechnological techniques, leading to the production of plants with increased levels of fine chemicals, new compounds with potential biological activity, colorants or fragrances, etc. The second is to develop greener extraction techniques to obtain bioactive compounds from plant material. These innovative techniques are based on microwave power, pressurized liquid extraction, subcritical water extraction, supercritical fluids extraction, and ultrasound assisted extraction and are used to extract active compounds on an industrial scale, having at the same time several “green” characteristics (shorter extraction time, no use of toxic chemicals, higher extraction yields with low solvent and energy consumption).Currently, in vitro plant technologies are considered as cost effective and eco-friendly innovations for the mass production of plant derived molecules. Also plant cell, tissue, and organ culture (PCTOC) system appears as an economically feasible way of producing some high value metabolites (most notably paclitaxel (Taxol.), shikonin, galantamine, camptothecin, and artemisinin) from MAPs. The increasing demand of MAPs by various processing industries (pharmaceutical, food, cosmetic, perfume, etc.) have placing pressure on natural resources. Currently 80% of medicinal plants are collected from the wild which leads to an incomparably growing pressure on plant population due to the increasing commercial recollection, largely unmonitored trade, habitat loss through residential and commercial development (including urbanization, industrialization, and tourism development) and impact of agriculture. Due to this overharvesting and habitat loss, approximately 15,000 species (or 21%) used in the global medicinal plant species are now endangered and also puts biodiversity at high risk. It is estimated that the current loss of plant species is between 100 and 1000 times higher than the expected natural extinction rate and that the Earth is losing at least one potential major drug every 2 years. To meet future supply needs, in situ, ex situ conservation and in vitro complementary conservation strategies, are being implemented for MAPs. Natural reserves and wild nurseries are typical examples to retain the medical efficacy of plants in their natural habitats, while botanic gardens and seed banks are important paradigms for ex situ
  35. 35. M.B.A.C., AGWANPUR 28 conservation and future replanting. In addition MAPs production via cultivation can minimize the high pressure on populations, decrease the harvest volume of MAPs. Cultivation provides the opportunity to use new techniques to solve problems encountered in the production of medicinal plants, such as toxic components, pesticide contamination, low contents of active ingredients, and the misidentification of botanical origin. Also cultivation improves the yields of active compounds. This approach will restrain environmental damage and destruction of genetic sources. Thus Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Genetic Resources should be studied and preserved for the benefit of present and future generations, as they are crucial to support human well being. The blessings of medicinal and aromatic plants are treasures that belong to all lives.
  36. 36. M.B.A.C., AGWANPUR 29 Effectiveness of vegetative propagation methods for Giloy (Tinospora cordifolia) planting A. A. Suvagiya, A. K. Patel, A. A. Mehta*, R. P. Gunaga, L.K. Behera Department of Forest Products and Utilization, College of Forestry, ACHF, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari -396450 * Email: aamehta@nau.in Gaduchi (Tinospora cordifolia: Family- Menispermaceae), popularly also known as Giloy, Amrita and Galo, is an herbaceous climber or vine indigenous to tropical areas of Indian subcontinent. It is widely used plant in folk and Ayurvedic system of medicine. It is well known for its medicinal uses. There are many vegetative and seed propagation methods employed for Giloy propagation. There are problems associated with large scale production of plants like poor seed set, less seed viability and germination. Many researchers reported that this plant can be successfully propagated through vegetative propagation including tissue culture. Standardization of vegetative propagation, other than its advantages over seed propagation, it also helps in multiplication of genotypes/clones in large scale. Study conducted at College of Forestry, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari, Gujarat showed that, instead of using growth hormone (IBA) for rooting, simple cutting without any treatment has resulted in 70 per cent sprouting with 90 per cent survival by attaining vein length of 31.5 cm and 8 mm stem thickness after three month of imposing treatments in potting mixture composed of soil, sand and vermicompost (1:1:1) than cutting treated with different concentration of IBA (500 to 1500 ppm). Therefore, Giloy plant can be easily propagated in large scale by vein cuttings without any requirement of growth hormones.
  37. 37. M.B.A.C., AGWANPUR 30 Macronutrients Nutrition of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Amit Kumar Pandey, Ashutosh Singh, Prem Chand Kumar, Santosh Kumar Mandan Bharti Agriculture College, Agwanpur, Saharsa Soil characteristics and nutrients supply are of great importance for growth and development of medicinal and aromatics plants. A part from industrial processes that nitrogen gas to solid form, the primary means of nitrogen fixation are through the high temperature and energy and biological nitrogen fixation by bacteria. Nitrogen is a component of amino acid and nucleic acid and a structural component of chlorophyll. Higher plant in musturd, coriander and catharanthus was observed with the application of nitrogen. Similarly number of branched per plant also increased in coriander, ginger and mustard with the application of different levels of nitrogen. The oil content of canola is improved with the application of nitrogen. ADP and ATP are high energy phosphate compound that control most processes in medicinal plants including photosynthesis, respiration, protein and nucleic acid synthesis. Leaf length in Aloe Vera and plant height of phaseolus trilobus were increased due to increased phosphorus fertilization. Positive effect of phosphorus fertilization were observed in the plant height development in mustard and growth of Ipomoea pestigrides. The effect of different levels of phosphorus were significant on branches per plant, plant spread, plant height and numbers of leaves per plant in Balioshpermum montanum Application of phosphorus recorded highest seed yield of fenugreek. Significant higher gel content in Aloe Vera and oil content in Basil were observed with the application of different levels of phosphorus. Significant increase in plant height, tiller production, number of primary and secondary rhizomes and ultimately yield of turmeric were reported due to potassium application. Coriander, cumin, fennel and fenugreek responses potassium fertilization. Thus it was concluded that N, P and K nutrients applied in some definite combination caused increase in yield of medicinal and aromatic plants.
  38. 38. M.B.A.C., AGWANPUR 31 Studies on Genetic diversity and variability for yield and yield attributes in garlic (Allium sativum L.) under Dhampur condition Deepak Kumar1* , Dr. S.L. Pal2 , Dr. Ravi3 , Dr Soraj Singh4 Department of Horticulture2 , Department of Soil Chemistry3 , Department of Botany4 R.S.M. PG College, Dhampur, Bijnor, Uttar Pradesh Email: deepak1231996@gmail.com The experiment was conducted at horticulture research farm Dhampur Bijnor during winter season 2019-2020. In the present investigation 21 genotypes of garlic (Allium sativum L.) were evaluated in RBD during with the objective of estimating the genetic variability and determination of association among different attributes with each other and with bulb yield. Analysis of variance for design of experiment revealed that there is the weight of fresh bulbs had highly significant and positive correlation with plant Equatorial diameter, weight of dry bulbs , leaf length, sulphur contain indicated that selection for these traits would be effective for the improvement of yield q/ha. The maximum positive direct effect on yield q/ha was exerted by number of cloves per bulb, leaf width, polar diameter, plant height, height of pseudo stem, total soluble solid, protein, plant pseudo stem diameter, width of leaf and number of leaves per plant. It is suggested that selection for these traits will directly increase yield q/ha.
  39. 39. M.B.A.C., AGWANPUR 32 Nitrogen fertilization in medicinal plant cultivation 1 Manoj Kumar, 2 Amit Kumar Pandey , 3 Uma Kant Singh and 4 Pramod Prabhakar 1 Assistant Prof.-cum-Jr. Scientist (Horticulture), 4 Assistant Prof.-cum-Jr. Scientist (Animal Husbandry) , Mandan Bharti Agriculture College, Agwanpur, Saharsa 2 Assistant Prof.-cum-Jr. Scientist (Soil Science & Agricultural Chemistry ), 3 Junior Scientist- cum-Assistant Professor (Horticulture), R.R.S., Agwanpur, Saharsa Email: monaj.mbac@gmail.com Nitrogen is essential to preserve the environment, while promoting sustainable and productive agriculture. Therefore knowledge on nitrogen availability and conservation, nitrogen uptake, assimilation and translocation by plants are critically important to the development of efficient nitrogen fertilization strategies for the cultivation of medicinal and aromatic plants. Nitrogen is one of the most important nutrients needed by medicinal and aromatic plants. It is an important element for the formation of amino acid, cell division, photosynthesis, vitamins and it aids the production of carbohydrates. Physiologically nitrogen is mostly available to plants in the form of ammonium and nitrate. It is available to plants from varied sources such as inorganic fertilizer, organic manure and bio fertilizer have be frequently linked to cases of environment contamination soil acidification and salinity, where as organic fertilizer improves soil structures. Total phenolic concentration significantly increased in N-stared medicinal plants and biosynthesis of secondary plant Metabolites is favoured in nitrogen deficit plants Periwinkle, a medicinal plants that is rich in terperoid alkaloids, when exposed to mixture of nitrate and ammonium, produced the highest contest of amino acid, protein, total alkalies, vincristine compared to each of the different N forms. Nitrogen concentration threshold that ensure a high phenolic concentration and antioxidants capacity without detrimental effects on plant performanic and proposed threshold of 15gN/Kg dry weight as an optimum concentration for ensuring high antioxidant activity and quality of various medicine and aromatic plants
  40. 40. M.B.A.C., AGWANPUR 33 Impact of organic manures as quality determinants in Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Ragini Kumari1 *, Ashutosh Kumar Singh1 , Amit Kumar Pandey1 , Niru Kumari2 and Sunita Paswan3 1 Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour (India) 2 Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour (India) 3 KVK, Agwanpur (Saharsa), Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour (India) Email*: drrkbaus@yahoo.in With increasing interests of consumers, plants are used extensively in both pharmaceutical and food industries. So, it is great significance to without the use of harmful chemical. However, the quality and quantity of these chemical metabolites in plants are influence by a multitude of factors in which soil nutrient is one of them. The effects of soil nutrient availability on plant growth, physiology, tissue chemistry or stress tolerance are often investigated by experimentally manipulating nutrient supply. At present the imbalanced application of the chemical fertilizer caused decreases in quality of the products not only inferior but threat to human health and other creatures also. But the organic manures along with improvement in the yield and also controls weeds and provide the organic matter and nutrients to the soil, ultimately improve the soil health. The use of organic fertilizers and microbial symbiosis with species of medicinal and aromatic plants under organic agriculture helps in improvement of yield and quality. Thus, developing more sustainable farming practices of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants on a large scale is of utmost importance. Organic farming helps to enhance farm productivity and profitability, soil health as well as quality of the product etc. The physical and chemical properties (quality) of the compound extracted from the organically grown medicinal and aromatic crop plants are superior as compared to traditional system.
  41. 41. M.B.A.C., AGWANPUR 34 Growing Of Tulsi/Basil Medicinal Plant by Different Methods of Cultivation Practices Saurabh Toppo Department of Vegetable Science Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur, Chhattisgarh Tulsi plant can be grown both at the garden and at a large scale industrial level. They can be grown both indoors and outdoors annually in warm climates. Firstly, seeds of basil are sown in peat based potting mixture into the seed flat or another narrow container. After 2 or 3 sets of true leaves they are transferred into 6 inch deep dishes/containers with holes in the bottom. Secondly, the seeds have to be sown at a depth of ¼ inch below the soil which will start to grow in about 7 to 15 days. Cover the top layer of the pot by making use of plastic wrap as doing so will help in sealing the moisture inside. Thirdly, it can be propagated by terminal cuttings with 8-10 nodes and 10-15 cm length are used except for the first 2-3 pairs of leaves the rest are trimmed off. Later, they are planted in the well prepared nursery beds or polythene bags. In about 4-6 weeks time the rooting is complete and they are ready for transplanting into the mainfield at a spacing of 40 cm between the row and 40 cm within the row. Fourthly, and lastly hydroponics setup consist of a rectangular tank with 2 holes to which the water and the nutrient solution is filled. They are filled with some supporting medium. The plants are suspended from baskets at the top.
  42. 42. M.B.A.C., AGWANPUR 35 Status of medicinal plants cultivation in Salem District of Tamil Nadu G. Malathi, M. Vijayakumar, R. Vijayan and P. Kohila Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Sandhiyur, Salem, Tamil Nadu, PIN – 636 203 Email: malathihort@gmail.com Medicinal plants plays an important role in Indian Economy. Plant is an important source of medicine and plays a key role in our health. Medicinal and some aromatic plants are an important potential source of therapeutics or curative phytochemicals. The use of medicinal plants plays a commanding role in health system not only in India but also around the world. This involves the use of medicinal plants not only for the treatment of diseases but also as potential material for maintaining good health conditions and to improve our immune system. More than 60% of the world’s population depends on herbal medicine for primary health care. Because of medicinal plants better cultural acceptability, better compatibility and adaptability with the human body and mainly not posing side effects or pose lesser side effects. Salem district was established during 1790 and it gave birth to Dharmapuri, Krishnagiri, and Namakkal districts subsequently. The district is located at North Latitude 110 14 and 120 13 and east longitude between 770 44 and 780 50; The geographical area is 5245 sq,km. Salem district is geologist paradise, surrounded by hills and the landscape dotted with hillocks. It is known for mangoes, silver ornament, textiles, sago industries, and steel production. Salem has got 20 blocks; Average temperature is 320 C, maximum and 19.6 degree minimum with humitidy ranging from 39 to 85%. During SW monsoon, a rainfall of 545 mm and during NE monsoon 564.2 mm was recorded. Soil type varies from red calcarious, brown calcarious, alluvial calcarious, to black soils. Net sown area is 22,33,70 ha; Horticultural crops are grown in an area of 39765 ha. Medicinal plants are grown in an area of around 557.10 ha in Salem district. Coleus forskholi and Gloriosa superba are the two important medicinal plants growing in the different blocks of Salem district. The state flower of Tamil Nadu, Gloriosa or Glory Lily or Karthigai kizhangu or Kalappai Kizhangu has been grown in an area of 44 ha in Edappadi block
  43. 43. M.B.A.C., AGWANPUR 36 of Salem district. The major area of around 470 ha is under the cultivation of medicinal coleus crop in Salem district which is mainly located in the blocks such as Thalaivasal, Attur, Gangavalli, PN Palayam and Valapady. One of the other medicinal crop grown in Salem is Thulasi (Ocimum sanctum) which is grown in an area of 18.5 and Aloe vera (Katrazhai) is grown in an area of 1.8 ha and Eucalyptus citriodora is grown in 21.9 ha area in Salem district.
  44. 44. M.B.A.C., AGWANPUR 37 Participatory Approach for Adoption of Improved Technology of Turmeric Through Front Line Demonstration Sunita Kumari1 , Geeta kumari2 , Ragini Kumari3 & Sushama Saroj Surin4 1 SMS(Agronomy), KVK,Vaishali, DrRPCAU, Pusa 2 Assistant Professor, Deptt. Of Microbiology, FBS&H, DrRPCAU, Pusa 3 Assistant Professor, Deptt. Of Soil Science, BAU, Sabour, 4 SMS(Agronomy), KVK, Lohardagga, BAU, Ranchi Email: sunita2009kvk@gmail.com Front line demonstrations (FLDs) on turmeric were carried out during kharif seasons of 2014-15 to 2015-16 by Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Vaishali under DrRPCAU, Pusa, Bihar. All 120 demonstrations on turmeric crop were carried out in an area of 48 ha by the active participation of farmers with the objective to demonstrate the improved technologies of turmeric production potential directly under close supervision of scientists on selected farmers field. Each FLD was laid out on 0.4 ha area, adjacent 0.4 ha was considered as control for comparison (farmer’s practice). The improved technologies consisting use of improved variety, balanced fertilizer application & IPM. FLD recorded better yield as compared to farmer’s practice. The findings revealed that due to FLD, an average yield of turmeric was recorded 212 q/ha under demonstrated plots as compared farmer’s practice 155 q/ha. The improved technology gave higher gross return, net return with higher benefit-cost ratio than farmer’s practice. The result indicates that the FLDs have given a good impact over the farming community of Vaishali district as they adopted the new agricultural technologies in the FLD plots. The higher benefit- cost ratio under FLD over existing practices of turmeric cultivation created greater awareness and motivated the other farmers to adopt suitable production technology of turmeric in the district.
  45. 45. M.B.A.C., AGWANPUR 38 Theme 2 Innovative extraction methods of MAPs and their uses
  46. 46. M.B.A.C., AGWANPUR 39 Bioinformatics: A tool for a new era of plant based drug discovery Ankita Sharma, Rehan Ph.D. Research Scholars, Department of Horticulture, COA, JNKVV, Jabalpur (M.P.) E-mail: ankitasharma199511.as@gmail.com Medicinal plants are considered to be an inexhaustible source of naturally occurring biochemicals used to make life-saving drugs since the birth of human civilization. The demand for the production and extraction of the therapeutic molecules is continuously increasing for the sustainable production of phyto-pharmaceuticals to cure a range of diseases. Pertaining to the ethno-medicinal data, there is a huge potential in the plant-based remedies as it has phytochemicals such as polyphenols, alkaloids, polyines, flavonoids, saponins, etc displaying a curative function against a diverse range of virus. Bioinformatics, a computational methodology, plays a crucial role in drug designing through medicinal plant-based research. It offers a suite of essential tools to identify, analyze and interpret the genes and pathways of bioactive secondary metabolites using molecular biology-based techniques. The medicinal herbs such as Camptotheca acuminata, Prunella vulgaris, Glyrrhiza glabra, Rauwolfia serpentine, Withenia somnifera and many more are a reservoir of active ingredients and the characterization of chemical constituents can be done using chemical fingerprinting and bioactive metabolite determination. This rapid and cost-effective technique promotes the analysis of high-throughput data. Combined metabolite profiling and network analysis of a plant cell, tissue and organ culture system (PCTOC) can be intensified in bioreactors for production and accumulation of high-value plant secondary metabolites. The framework generates a metabolic network to identify specialized compounds, genes and control their biosynthesis
  47. 47. M.B.A.C., AGWANPUR 40 Traditional versus innovative extraction methods of MAPs Parul Mehra*, Shikha Jain1 * Department of Horticulture (Vegetable Science), College of Agriculture, Jabalpur, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwavidayala , Jabalpur 482004 1 Department of Horticulture (Fruit Science) College of Agriculture, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar , Uttrakhand - 263145 Email id- parulmehra1995@gmail.com As the growing population increasing the demand of plant derived therapeutic molecules extracted from the different medicinal and aromatic plants through various standardized extraction techniques. The standardized extraction is for obtaining the crude drugs from medicinal & aromatic plants parts. Traditionally, hot continuous Extraction (Soxhlet), Steam distillation, Enfleurage (cold fat extraction) and cold press is used for extraction but these methods yield low and also poor in selectivity. Thus by keeping in account all the drawbacks of traditional methods new extraction techniques have been introduced like Microwave Accelerated Extraction, Supercritical Fluid Extraction, Accelerated Solvent Extraction , Subcritical Water Extraction and Ultrasound Assisted Extraction for extraction of medicinal plants. And latest and innovative extraction methods for Aromatic plants are headspace trapping, solid phase micro- extraction, protoplast extraction, micro-distillation, thermo micro-distillation, and molecular distillation. It is concluded that the method to be opted for extraction should be based on both chemical and economical parameters.
  48. 48. M.B.A.C., AGWANPUR 41 Innovative extraction methods of MAPs and their uses Pratibha Kumari Dept. of Botany, L. N. Mithila University, Darbhanga Email: pratibhasingh22040@gmail.com Extraction process forms the first basic step in medicinal plants. Medicinal plants are the richest bio source of drugs for traditional system of medicine as well as modern medicines. Aromatic plants are a source of fragrances, flavours, cosmeceuticals, health beverages and chemical terpenes. The industrial processing of MAPs starts with the innovative extraction of the active components using various technologies. Novel extraction method including Microwave Assisted Extraction (MAE), Supercritical Fluid Extraction (ScFE), Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE), Supercritical Water Extraction(SWE),and ultra sound assisted Extraction (USAE). For aromatic plants hydro distillation techniques, hydrolytic maceration followed by distillation, expression and enfleurage. The latest extraction methods for aromatic plants include headspace, traping, solid phase micro-extraction protoplast extraction, micro distillation, thermo micro distillation and molecular distillation. The basic parameters influencing the quality of an extract are plants parts used as starting material, the solvent used for extraction, the manufacturing process used with the type of equipment employed, and the crude-drug extract ratio. Such types of extraction helps to produce a good quality extract. Extracts from medicinal plants have been used as source of remedies.
  49. 49. M.B.A.C., AGWANPUR 42 Improved tapping methods for extraction of oleo-gum resin in Salai guggul (Boswellia serrata Roxb.): A medicinal tree for pharmaceutical industries S.K. Sinha* , J.G. Pathak, A.A. Mehta, L.K. Behera College of Forestry, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari-396 450 Email*: sksinha@nau.in Salai guggul (Boswellia serrata Roxb.) has been traditionally tapped for extraction of oleo-gum resin for the treatment of inflammatory diseases in the Ayurvedic system of medicine. The oleo- gum resin of Salai guggul is light yellow to brown in colour that consists of essential oil, gum and rosin. A proper amount of boswellic acid content in oleo-gum resin is important for medicinal purpose. Wide cuts secrete more polysaccharides (opaque colour gums) that has neither medicinal nor aromatic role and exhaust tree resources, while narrow deep cut secretes mostly transparent resinous portion having aromatic role and medicinal value. Keeping in view of these points, an investigation was carried out in 14-year-old Boswellia serrata plantation raised by a pharmaceutical company of Gujarat using ten different tapping methods with the objective to select the suitable tapping methods for high yield of oleo-gum resin for medicinal purpose on sustainable basis. Three trees were selected in each tapping method for extraction of oleo-gum resin by making incisions in the bark such as circular cut, square cut, rill cut, triangular cut with bark lid, spiral cut, irregular cut, V-cut, bore hole (1.5 cm) method, V-cut along with a hole (1.5 cm) on the lower side treated with 3ml ethephon of 39% solution and bore hole (1.5 cm) method treated with 3 ml ethephon of 39% solution and patched up with clay. Out of these tapping methods, only two methods, the first, V-cut method along with a hole on the lower side & treated with ethephon and the second, hole method treated with ethephon & patched up with clay produced high amount of oleo-gum resin and therefore, these two methods were suggested for sustainable tapping of oleo-gum-resin from the whole plantation. It was observed during tapping that the slant cut produced more oleo-gum resin than the straight cut. After chemical analysis the pharmaceutical company reported less amount of boswellic acid content in the oleo-
  50. 50. M.B.A.C., AGWANPUR 43 gum resin and postponed the further tapping. Hence, a future study is required to understand the effect of age and girth on the variation of boswellic acid content in the oleo-gum resin of Salai guggul trees.
  51. 51. M.B.A.C., AGWANPUR 44 Innovative Extraction Method of MAPs and Their Uses Swati kumari1 , Ritu kumari2 1Department of Agronomy ,Bihar Agricultural university, Sabour 2 Department of Agriculture, Govt. of Bihar Bhagalpur- 813210, Bihar, India Email: 1 swatikumari0198@gmail.com Extraction method is the first basic step in MAPs research because the preparation of raw extracts from plants is the initial point for the isolation and purification of chemical constituents present in plants. Yet the extraction step remains often a neglected topic ,as time has passed it receive much less attention and research. Conventional methods of extraction and processing of herbs and medicinal plants such as solid liquid extraction (Soxhlet), steam distillation or cold press are still in used . These methods of extraction lack selectivity, give lower yields and because it uses large quantity of organic solvents it present safety concern and environmental risk. Many new extraction techniques for improving efficiency and selectivity are now replacing the old methods of extraction. However, recently exports of MAPs products from India to other countries are becoming more and more restricted due to the presence of unacceptable levels of contaminants and sometimes the occurrences of heavy metals and pesticides that attributed to the drawbacks of traditional extraction methods. Keeping in pace with such requirements, recently observed the use and growth of new extraction techniques with curtailed extraction time, reduced solvent consumption, increased pollution prevention concern and with special care for thermolabile constituents. New extraction methods are Microwave Assisted Extraction (MAE - Microwave systems for extraction and laboratory use are available in two forms i.e., Closed extraction vessels & Focused microwave ovens ), Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SCFE -The main attraction of SCFE is the use of carbon dioxide (CO2) as the solvent ), Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE -It uses organic solvents at elevated pressure and temperature in order to increase the efficiency of the extraction process) , Subcritical Water Extraction (SWE - i.e., extraction using hot water under pressure, has recently emerged as a useful tool to replace the traditional extraction methods)Ultrasound Assisted Extraction (USE -Ultrasonic-assisted extraction is one of the important techniques for extracting the valuable compounds from the vegetal materials ) have drawn significant research attention in the last decade . I also suggested establishing these innovative technologies for extraction in India.
  52. 52. M.B.A.C., AGWANPUR 45 Theme 3 Conservation and sustainable utilization of MAPs
  53. 53. M.B.A.C., AGWANPUR 46 Collection of High Quality Mahua Flower in Shahdol District (MP) for Seasonal Livelihood Security B.P Pandre, Dr. M Singh , Dr A. Sharma , PN Tripathi, D. Chouhan Krishi Vigyan Kendra Shahdol JNKVV Jabalpur MP Shahdol district of Madhya Pradesh has a large Forest coverage (41%) of total geographical area. The Present study was conducted in five villages namely Kalyanpur, Sinduri, Narwar, Dadratola, and Majhgaon. The selections of village were done on the situation of nearby forest coverage and developing of livelihood of the villagers on NTFP produces specially Mahua. The selected villages were surveyed through random sampling household questionnaire. A total of 200 farm familes were surveyed. On the basis of dated was found that an average of the one way distance travvelled by villagers for Mahua collection was least for Narwar village i.e (0.4 km) followed by Dadratola (0.7 km ) , Sinduri ( 1.1km), and Kalyanpur (1.5km ) . The average time spent to collect of Mahua quality (4-5 kg) flowers varies from 4-6 hrs. Respectively with highest recorded in Kalyapur and Lowest in Narwar. The villagers were advised to lay old seress near tro the plants for collection of quality hygienic Mahua flowers .Also it was noted that an average farm family collected 6-8 Quintal. A Mahua flower in a season .The sale prize of mahua varies from Rs 15-20 per kg. as per their quality aspect . The study recorded that on an average farm family earned Rs. 10,000- Rs 25,000 by the sale of mahua flowers.
  54. 54. M.B.A.C., AGWANPUR 47 Integrated nutrient management on oil production and economics of basil (Ocimum sanctum) cultivation Nilay Kumar*, Sunandani chandel**, Tara Singh Mehra*** *Assistant professor (Senior Scale), Department of Forest Products Utilization, College of Horticulture and Forestry, Central Agricultural University, Pasighat-791 102, Arunachal Pradesh (India) ** Research Scholar, Department of Forest Products and Utilization, ASPEE College of Horticulture and Forestry, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari-396 450, Gujarat (India) ***Associate Professor & Head, Department of Forest Products Utilization, College of Horticulture and Forestry, Central Agricultural University, Pasighat-791 102, Arunachal Pradesh (India) Ocimum sanctum is regarded as important medicinal plant which has extensive medical use due to the high yield of their essential oil and valuable secondary metabolites. The present study was conducted on the research field of department of Forest Products at Dr Y.S. Paramar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Solan, H.P, India to investigate the adequate performance of integrated nutrient management on oil production and economics of basil (O. sanctum) cultivation. In this experiment ten treatments viz., T1: Control, T2: FYM (15t/ha), T3: NPK (120:60:60 kg/ha), T4: FYM+NPK (15 t/ha + 120:60:60 kg/ha), T5: Jeevamrutha-desi cow (125 l/ha, 3%), T6: Jeevamrutha-jersey cow (125 l/ha, 3%), T7: Panchagavya-desi cow (50 l/ha, 5%), T8: Panchagavya-jersey cow (50 l/ha, 5%), T9: Vermicompost (3t/ha) and T10: Vermicompost + NPK (3 t/ha + 120:60:60 kg/ha) were evaluated in RBD factorial design with three replications in 2017 and 2018 crop year on growth and yield of the plant. Results from the experiment revealed that among the 10 treatments compared, the combination of Vermicompost @ 3 t/ha + fertiliser NPK @ 120:60:60 kg/ha performed the best and show a significant effect on the growth, essential oil content and essential oil yield of O. sanctum followed by T4>T3>T2>T7 treatments. This study indicates that combined application of manure and fertilizer helps to increase oil production and also maintain the soil fertility. The Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR) among the 10 treatments shows that the NPK (T3) (120:60:60 kg/ha) was found best (1.69) due to lowest cost and higher yield followed by T7>T8>T5>T4.
  55. 55. M.B.A.C., AGWANPUR 48 Global initiatives for medicinal crops conservation G. Roja Ramani*, Pavan Gowda .m and D. Gowthami Department of Plantation, Spices, Medicinal and Aromatic Crops Faculty of Horticulture, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Vishwavidyalaya Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal, India-741252 *E-mail; rojaramanigorle60@gmail.com Medicinal and aromatic plants play a very important role in the life support systems and wellbeing of mankind. India is one of the hot spots of world’s biodiversity having wealth of Medicinal Plants. Forests are the main habitat of Medicinal Plants and a large number of species are also endemic that gives India a unique position in the world. Medicinal Plants form the major resource base of our traditional systems of medicine or AYUSH systems of medicines, folklore medicines. Even allopathic medicines also used plant based raw material for the preparation of medicine. However, due to various anthropogenic activities and unsustainable harvesting from wild, many Medicinal Plants species in India have become endangered and have been included in Red Data Book of threatened species. Thus, there is an urgent need to have measures taken to protect/conserve the natural habitats of these Medicinal Plants wealth of the Country. Some important Medicinal Plants species of conservation concern in India are Aconitum heterophyllum, Aconitum atrox,Bergeniaciliata,Commiphorawightii,Dactylorhizahatagirea, Nardostachysgrandiflora, Paris polyphylla, Picrorhizakurrooa,Podophyllumhexandrum,Rauvolfiaserpentina, Rheum australe , Saracaasoacaetc.The National Medicinal Plants Board (NMPB), Government of India, in this regard, has taken initiatives to support in-situ conservation of Medicinal Plants through establishment of Medicinal Plants conservation and Development Areas (MPCDAs) throughout the country in collaboration with Research Institutions and State Forest Departments. Activities like artificial re-generation of local populations is particularly important in case of species where wild populations have dwindled on account of habitat degradation, and unsustainable harvest. The ex situ conservation methods may include growing the whole plants in field gene banks or by seed storage to conserve diversity.Thus, identification, conservation and setting up of to set up more MPCDAs is paramount as India one the mega biodiversities of the world and at the
  56. 56. M.B.A.C., AGWANPUR 49 same time efforts also need to be made to conserve the endemic germplasm for further research studies for production of improved varieties of medicinal plants in the country which would make India one of the global leader in traditional system of health.
  57. 57. M.B.A.C., AGWANPUR 50 Comparing medicinal properties of plant extracted drugs Jyoti Shekhawat Assistant Professor in Botany, Department of Agriculture, Maharishi Markandeshwar University, Sadopur, Ambala Since ages plants have always been a part of our home made remedies for curing ailments. As arriving times we have successfully found treatments of various diseases by using plant derived bioactive compounds. New bioactive compounds extracted from plants are now produced at commercial scale and have successfully acquired an important place in our daily lives. From herbal cosmetics to herbal daily used products, plants are always been a reliable source for our health and beauty. At times plans are directly been used as concentrated extract or sometimes purified by using various techniques. This paper represents discussion about the medicinal properties of specific plants, comparison of their efficacy of bioactive compounds, nourishing and healing effects of the above and their adverse effects on human health.
  58. 58. M.B.A.C., AGWANPUR 51 Antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citrates) oil Nisha Jangre, Vandana Yadav Department of Vegetable Science, IGKV, Raipur Email: nisha11horticulture@gmail.com Cymbopogon citratus, Stapf (Lemon grass) is a widely used lofty perennial grass belongs to family Cymbopogon, a genus of about 55 species of grasses, native to temperate and tropical countries, especially in Southeast Asia. Lemon grass is, also called fever grass, a perennial plant with thin, long leaves. The culm is stout, erect up to 1.8 m height. Leaves are long glaucoces, green, linear tapering upwards and long the margin. Lemon grass contains citral, rich oil has germicidal, medicinal and flavouring properties which is present in leaves and twigs. Lemon grass is commonly used on teas, soups and carries it is also suitable for poultry, fish and sea food, it is often used as a tea. The oil has strong lemon-like odour, due to high percentage (over 75%) of citral in the oil. The characteristic smell of oil makes its use in scenting of soaps, detergents, insect repellent preparations. The lemon grass oil also injects natural fluidity into the brittle palm leaves and the hydrophobic nature of the oil keeps the manuscript dry so that the text is not lost to decay due to humidity. However, the major use of oil is as a source of citral, which goes in perfumery, cosmetics, beverages and is a starting material for manufacture of ionones, which produces vitamin – A. The essential oil of lemon grass has many important chemical constituents, which are helpful for medicinal other useful significance applications. It has cis and trans citral, myrcene, geranial, etc. The essential oil of the plant is used in aromatherapy. Essential oil having lemon like aroma was extracted by steam distillation, which can be used as scent and flavouring agents in medicine. It can help in fever reduction, helpful to improve digestion, reduce diarrhea, and stomachaches. Cymbopogon citratus also possesses various pharmacological activities such as anti-amoebic, antibacterial, antidiarrheal, antifilarial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory anti–asthamatic, urinary tract infections properties. The leaves are used in the treatment of cough, fever, depression, nervous disorder and skin irritations.
  59. 59. M.B.A.C., AGWANPUR 52 Medicinal Herbs: Globally Valued Potential Source of Therapeutics Aids Rehan , Ankita Sharma Ph.D. Research Scholar, Horticulture (Vegetable Science), COA, JNKVV, Jabalpur (M.P.) E-mail: rehanazmi477@gmail.com Medicinal plants are high value crops possessing a repository of secondary metabolites with an immense structural diversity, an unmatched chemical diversity and a robust pharmacological activity. These are globally valuable sources of formulations and development of clinically effective drugs. The natural products obtained from these plants are low volume high value produce and is an integral part of our health care system. The therapeutic potential of the plant based products have been exploited by humans due to their beneficial roles since time immemorial. The conservation and sustainability of these plants is essential due to the increasing demand of these herbal drugs and natural health products. As per the reports of World Health Organisation, a large population of developing countries rely on traditional and folklore medicines for primary health care needs. Though there has been a remarkable development in the field of chemistry but these medicinal herbs still remain underexploited due to limited abundance and slow growth. A sustainable use of the different parts such as leaves, roots, seeds, flowers and buds; should be done by formulating good harvesting and extraction procedures to reduce destructive whole plant harvesting. The market share of plant based products remains comparatively low due to lack of research, huge investments and challenging extraction methods of active principles for drug formulations. Lack of information on market potential and socio- economic benefits of the plants have deprived the industrial utilization. Exploitation of available resources needs to be made to generate employment and conserve the rich heritage.
  60. 60. M.B.A.C., AGWANPUR 53 Medicinal Properties of Punarnava (Boerhaavia diffusa) Romila Xess1 , Deepti Patel2 and Arunima Tripathy3 PhD. Scholar1 , Scientist2 and Assistant Professor3 Department Of Fruit Science,Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidalaya, Raipur, Chhattisgarh Email: romilaxess8@gmail.com Boerhaavia diffusa is an important medicinal plant commonly known in India as Punarnava (rejuvenator) in Ayurveda because of having secondary metabolites in it which is recognised as potent anti-oxidant activity used in cell repairing. Various parts of this plant i.e. root, leaves, aerial parts or the whole plant have been employed for the treatment of numerous disorders in Ayurveda and other system of medicine with its mystic effects. Medicinally, punarnava Root is useful as diuretic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective etc. It is used as a single remedy and also as a chief content in many medicinal preparations.The pharmacological studies have demonstrated that the roots of B. diffusa exhibit a wide range of properties such as antiinflammatory, diuretic, laxative, antiurethritis, anticonvulsant, antinematodal, antifibrinolytic, antibacterial, antihepatotoxic, anthelmintic, antileprotic, antiasthmatic, antiscabby and antistress activities. The leaf extracts from this plant has been shown to have hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antinociceptive, antibacterial and antidiabetic properties. Boerhaavia diffusa has the ability to support both adrenal over and under activation. In stressful conditions it has demonstrated the ability to buffer the elevations of serum cortisol and prevent the suppression of the immune system that takes place with elevated cortisol.
  61. 61. M.B.A.C., AGWANPUR 54 Relevance of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants in Covid Era Rupesh Student, Department of Agricultre Maharishi Markandeshwar University Sadopur, Ambala Plants have been linked to the health of mankind from time immemorial. Substantially aromatic plants are those plants which contain essential oil in them essential oils are mainly composite mixture of acyclic and mono terpenoids and medicinal plants are those plants which comprise secondary metabolites and are potential source for drugs. They have been used for therapeutic, religious, cosmetic and nutritional purposes. They are frequently used as natural medicines viz. phytomedicines, herbal medicines, natural medicines, homeopathic medicines, ayurvedic medicines and medical chemistry because of their ameliorative and indelible pharmacological characteristics. Aromatic plants are mainly utilized for essential oil, extraction for application in industry, for example in cosmetics, flavouring, fragrance, spices, pesticides, repellents and herbal beverages. Medicinal plants have been studied to treat abundant traditional diseases. Plants may have bioactive constituents like alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, phenols, tannin, antioxidants and other categories of composites which may have striking pharmaceutical actions as anti-cancerous, anti-malarial, anti-helminthic etc. Plentiful of the essential oils, dyes, latex and even vegetable oils are also extensively used as medicines .The purpose of my review paper is to make use of aromatic and medicinal plants in relevance with present pandemic COVID-19 comparing the therapeutic properties and its benefit for current situation.
  62. 62. M.B.A.C., AGWANPUR 55 Advancement in Fruit Production through Growth Regulators Sangeeta1 , H. K. Panigrahi1 , Yugalkishor Lodhi2 1 Department of Fruit Science, 2 Department of Vegetable Science College of Agriculture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Krishak Nagar, Raipur-492012 (C.G.) Email: chandrakarsangeeta500@gmail.com Plant growth regulators are organic substances produced naturally in higher plants, controlling growth or other physiological functions at a site remote from its place of production and active in minute amounts. Plant growth regulators or phytohormones include auxins, gibberellins, cytokinin, ethylene, growth retardants and growth inhibitors. Plant growth regulators (PGRs) are chemicals used to modify plant growth such as increase in branching, suppressing shoot growth, increasing return bloom, removing excess fruit, or altering fruit maturity. Numerous factors affect PGR performance including how well the chemical is absorbed by the plant, tree vigor and age, dose, timing, cultivar and weather conditions before, during and after application. Plant growth regulators can be grouped into five classes: compounds related to auxins, gibberellins and inhibitors of gibberellin biosynthesis, cytokinins, abscisic acid and compounds affecting the ethylene status. Use of PGRs is a unique fact of biotechnology and a new approach of manipulating plant biological activities for enhancing growth, yield, quality, nutritive value and also to reduce biotic and abiotic stress in plants. Ethylene serves as a key ripening hormone of climacteric fruits and can influence ripening in many non-climacteric fruits. In order to increase the yield of monoecious crops, the increase female flowers are prerequisite for the same, Ethrel (250-1000 ppm) and CPPU (20-80 ppm) sprays work to induce female and intersexual flowers in male plants of papaya (Kumar, 1998). Foliar sprays of PGRs (GA3 at 20-40 ppm or NAA at 25-50 ppm) enhanced apple yield and fruit quality traits. Gibberellic acid and salicylic acid are also reported to increase yield, fruit acidity, reducing sugars, TSS, TSS/acid ratio, fruit firmness and fruit chlorophyll a and b content peach trees. The influences on fruit production by the growth regulators are numerous and are employed in a wide range of circumstances varying from tissue culturally propagated plants to enhancing post-harvest storage life through almost all stages of plant life in between. It is not always the effect of single growth regulator but the
  63. 63. M.B.A.C., AGWANPUR 56 interaction effect of different hormones in combination for instance; the ratio of cytokinin to auxin determines the fate of callus if it is high it promotes shoot proliferation while as low cytokinin: auxin ratio enhances root formation.
  64. 64. M.B.A.C., AGWANPUR 57 Insecticidal Property of Parhenium Hysterosphours and Viex Nigundi Leaf Extract (Acetone) Against Siophilus Orzyae (Rice Weevil) Sanket Surendra Deshmukh1 , Priyanka Subhash Shinde2 , Mukul Kumar3 1-2 Department of Agrochemicals and Pest Management, Shivaji university, Kolhapur 3 Deparment of Biochemistry, Agwanpur, Saharsa The insecticidal property of Parthenium hysterosphorous and vitex nigundi leaf extract in acetone against the rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae)| were very effective to control the pest Different cone, dose were checked and the result showed that high doses or the extract of Parthenium and vitex were significantly more toxic to Sitophilus oryzae compared to lower dose. The probit analysis of data demonstrated mortality rate for acetone extract was mortality % of Parthenium leaf extract in acetone 5 %,10%, 15 = 25 % , 40%, 60 % mortality % of vitex left extract in acetone 5% , 10% ,15 %= 15 %, 35 % 65 %, Mortality % of mixture of Parthmium and vitex leaf extract in acetone =S 10 %, 15 %, 30 %, 40 %, 80 %, respectively from10 days. Hence, we concluded that leaf extract of Parthenium hysterosphorous and vitex nigundi served as a potential insecticide used against Sitophilus oryzae (Rice weevil).
  65. 65. M.B.A.C., AGWANPUR 58 Conservation and Sustainable Utilization of Medicinal and Aromatic plants Yelakacherla Mounika, Koncha Mounika College of Horticulture, Dr.YSR Horticultural University, Venkatarammanagudem, West Godavari, District: Andhra Pradesh, India E-mail:ymounikaspma@gmail.com Medicinal plants are globally valuable sources of herbal products and traditional or indigenous health system of the population in most of the developing countries and as a result of the expanding interest in medicinal and aromatic plants, new income generation opportunities are opening up for rural population with many of the medicinal and aromatic plantsis gathered from the wild, the recollection and sale of medicinal and aromatic plants is providing a complementary source of income for many poor rural household but they are disappearing at a high speed. So the conservation and sustainable use of medicinal plant resources to provide a reliable reference for conservation and sustainable use in medicinal plants. We emphasized that both conservation strategies in situ and ex situ conservation and good agricultural practices and resource management should be adequately taken into account for sustainable use of medicinal plant resources.

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