ORGANISATIONALBEHAVIOURPRESENTATION ON :GROUPS AND TEAMS Presented by: MRINAL GAUTAM IMBA , 3rd sem.
Topics of discussion:1. What are groups?2. What are teams?3. Importance of groups.4. Group formation.5. Types of groups.6. Group development model.
1. What are groupsA group is a collection of people working together toachieve a common assigned task under certain conditions.The people in a group are assigned a common goal andthey work together coordinating with each other to achievetheir goals.
2. What are teams?A team is a small group of people withcomplementary skills, working with eachother to achieve a specific, common goalor objective. Teams often are difficult to form. It takes time for members to learn how to work together.example: INDIAN CRICKET TEAM. NOTE: All teams are groups but not all groups are teams.
3. Importance of groups1. Helps in building effective decisional ground.2. Helps the management and the organization in problem solving in uncertain situations.3. Helps in achieving higher level of productivity.4. Satisfaction of needs of the individuals.5. Individuals derive their identities through membership in groups.
4. How are groups formed Group formationCreated officially Created unofficially By people from Large groupsfor a specific and spontaneously similar formed with thepurpose background aim of learning from each otherFORMAL INFORMAL COHORT COMMUNITIESGROUPS GROUPS GROUPS OF PRACTICE (COP)
5. TYPES OF GROUPS Types of groupsBy size By purpose By tenure By position Small task group On-time Formal Large Coalition On-going Informal Cohort Interest group
BY SIZE:1. Small group- a group consisting minimum of 2-5 members, workingtogether towards a small task, which is required to be accomplished soon. A small group2. Large group- any group with more than 5 or 10 members created to worktowards a more professional task and to accomplish it with all possible efforts,is a large group A large group
BY PURPOSE:1. Task groups - includes task forces and planning groups which are formed for a specific task in hand.2. Coalition - formed by individuals when they want to protect their interests in a way that cannot be done by a single individual.3. Cohort - a group of people who share a similar background, and have a similar perspective on things. example: batch-mates, people from same educational background. A cohort group by the members at the OXFORD UNIVERSITY.
(cont.…)4. Interest groups - any group formed by people who share a common interest, is a interest group. Group of people with common interest.
BY TENURE:1. on-time - some groups are created only at the time when any specific task is needed to be accomplished. These are on-time groups. They stop working after the specified task is completed.2. On-going -these are those groups that once created, keep on functioning all the times. They keep on going. They and their actions are involved in everyday functioning of the organisation.
BY POSITION:1. Formal groups - are created officially for a specific purpose. A formal group at any business organisation2. Informal groups - emerge unofficially and spontaneously. An informal group formed spontaneously by some playmates.
6. How groups developThe five stage model: 1. FORM 5. 2. ADJORN STORM 4. 3. PERFORM NORM
(CONT….)1. Form -starting with ideas of group goals and objectives. There is uncertainty and confusion in among the members.2. Storm - conflict and confrontation in the group due lack of clarity.3. Norm - development and appreciation of the team and its members.4. Perform - the group is ready to act and perform on the ground.5. Adjourn – moving towards the next task, after the completion of the first one.
Questions---Q1) Which type of group is one that managers establish to achieve organizational goals in a condition where there is a conflict in the organization and all the members are new?Q2) Do people join and continue in groups because they want to get benefits out of the groups?
SYNERGY• When individual work in group, the group output is greater than the sum of output of individuals taken together. This is called synergy which causes process gains.
Some common process gains:• More information More objective evaluation Stimulation Learning
Social facilitationIt is a positive, predictable group phenomenon. Individuals to perform better in presence of others. Individuals desire to get the attention of other individuals in the group. Get attention by performing better or working harder.
Social compensationOccurs when some group members work harder in a group , to cover for the other group members performance.Social compensators feel compelled to contribute to the collective goal in order to make up for the inadequate contributions of their co- workers.
Social loafingPeople in a group often do not work as hard as they do when they work on their own in presence of other co -workers. Social loafing is most likely to occur where direct observation or evaluation is not possible and when the goal and rewards are given on the team basis.• Identifying and evaluating individuals member’s contribution• Enhancing personal involvement with the task• Recognizing the uniqueness of individual contributions• Strengthening group cohesiveness• Remedies against social loafing
Difference Between Group and TeamsBasis of Teams GroupsDifferentiationLeadership Leadership is One Leader essentially sharedInterdependence Greater Less interdependence interdependenceOutcome Collective or joint No collective outcome work productMotivation Motivated by purpose Motivated by Leader of performanceDependence Collective work Depend heavily on product individual work
Popular Types of Teams Cross Functional Teams ( CFT) Objective:-co-ordination and integration of various specialist discipline and function with in organization Key Features:- • Members have expertise in different field • May are of different Age and values • Interdependence is more than other type of teams • Many lead to conflicts among divergent view point which can generate discussion and thought resulting in new ideas. • Suitable for creative activity such as new product development
Self Directed Work Teams (SDWT)Objective:- To coup with typical cases of downsizing and delayering.Key features:-• Greater degree of member empowerment• Greater degree of authority is shared, decision making is participative• The solve problem at the lowest possible level • The evaluate and challenge their own work Virtual TeamsVirtual teams are the result of increasing use of technology in groupprocesses such as communication and decision makingKey features:- The processes are so integrated by technology that themembers can interact and function without always having to meet face-to-face.