Education is the most effective tool ever
developed. Education makes the man wiser
and independent. There is an old saying
“Education makes you right and responsible.”
But it was not the case earlier. It was believed
that education was meant only for rich and
great people. But after so many attempts by
Government the entire scenario has changed
in our country.
A literate is the one who has acquired the
skills of reading, writing and arithmetic and
the ability to apply them to one's day-to-day
life. As recorded in 1901 the Literacy rate of
India was 5.40% which has grown to 74.04% in
The literacy rate has constantly increased since 1901 as shown below.
Its basically because of efforts of Government.
1901 1911 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011
There is a misconception among people in
Indian society that women should not be
allowed to study as they are expected to
manage domestic chores. The number of
literate women among the female population
of India was between 2–6% from 1901 to
1947.Concerted efforts led to improvement
from 15.3% in 1961 to 28.5% in 1981.By 2001
literacy for women had exceeded 50% of the
overall female population.
Women literacy Rate improved
1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011
FEMALE LITERACY RATE
FEMALE LITERACY RATE
With concerted efforts of government and many NGO’s the literacy
rate has sharply increased. The first woman who educated herself in
spite of so much pressure from society was Dr. Ramabai Ranade. The
sharp increase in female literacy rate can be seen as below.
The Urban-Rural Rift
Earlier only urban people were expected to be
educated as the schooling facilities were only
applicable there. But now Government has
started many schools in various urban and
rural areas where a very meager fee is
charged. Also many private schools have come
up in many districts.
The rural areas have always shown literacy
rate as compared to urban areas but the
difference is decreasing as shown below.
1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011
THE RESERVED CATEGORIES
From very earlier times the right to
education had been to only upper castes and
rich people but afterwards the people
became aware and various policies started by
government helped in educating lower castes
and Right to education was also a boon.
THE MALE-FEMALE DISCRIMINATION
Women are always considered inferior to men
and the same is in case of education. In 1901
the literacy rate of women was far more less
than men but it has considerably improved.
It can be seen in the graph below that the female literacy rate was much
less than the male literacy rate and total literacy rate but further
because of changing trends and policies it has increased.
RIGHT TO EDUCATION-A MILESTONE
The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory
Education Act or Right to Education Act
(RTE), which was passed by the Indian
parliament on 4 August 2009.It describes the
modalities of the provision of free and
compulsory education for children between 6
and 14 in India.
The days of carrying huge bags, textbooks are
going to be over as concept of smart schools
has arrived which deals with everything
online. This will attract more and more
students towards education. And there would
be no more discussions on “School made us
'literate' but did not teach us to study for
The literacy rate is improving as we know. The
Government has assured the change will come
from small cities. Kerala has the best literacy
rate in India but the focus will be on small
states like Bihar which had shown a sharp
increase from 47% in 2001 and 63.82 % in
FUTURE OF EDUCATION
The government may propose new
school, colleges and numerous reforms but these
cannot see the light without adequate money. The
central government allocated Rs.42,036 crore
(Rs.420 billion/ $ 9.1 billion) for both the school
and higher education sectors in 2010-11, an
increase of over Rs.5,600 crore from the previous
fiscal – a move that aims to reform education by
bringing equality in the sector.