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Reptiles & Amphibians So. California

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high school level reptiles and amphibians of So. California

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Reptiles & Amphibians So. California

  1. 1. REPTILES & AMPHIBIANS Mr. Estrella Ecotourism mrestrella1@outlook.com
  2. 2. Reptiles • Kingdom: Animal • Phylum: Chordata • Class Reptilia: mostly live on land or in freshwater. Relatively few live in the ocean. • Herpetology: the study of reptiles. 5 - 2
  3. 3. Reptiles Characteristics: • Ectothermic. (cold- blooded). Maintain their body temperatures through external means. Ex. sunlight, water, etc. • Breathe with lungs at all stages of their lives. 5 - 3
  4. 4. Reptiles • Scales • Most reproduce by laying internally fertilized eggs. 5 - 4
  5. 5. Reptiles – Order Crocodilia Order Crocodilia – Alligators, Crocodiles, and Caimans. • Semi-aquatic with most living in freshwater. Exception is the giant saltwater crocodile. 5 - 5 American AlligatorRange
  6. 6. Reptiles – Order Crocodilia 5 - 6 American Crocodile
  7. 7. Reptiles – Order Crocodilia Is it a crocodile or an alligator? 5 - 7 crocodiles have a very long, narrow, V-shaped snout, alligator's snout is wider and U-shaped. Crocodile's top and bottom teeth are both visible from the side.
  8. 8. Reptiles – Order Crocodilia Giant Saltwater Crocodile are the biggest crocs. Not in the U.S. 5 - 8
  9. 9. Reptiles – Order Crocodilia • Crocodile eats man! 5 - 9
  10. 10. Reptiles – Order Crocodilia Caimans are smaller, although one species, the Black caiman, can exceed 13 ft 5 - 10 Chapter5Pages5-77to5-80 Caimans Bill Nye -Alligators
  11. 11. Reptiles / Crocodilia Review #1 1. What are three members of the crocodilia order? 2. Classify the groups alligators and crocodiles belong to. Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order 3. What does “cold blooded” really mean? 4. What are three characteristics of reptiles? 5. How do most reptiles have sex? 6. How are mammals and reptiles alike? How do they differ? 7. Distinguish an alligator from a crocodile? 8. What is the largest member of crocodilia? 9. Predict how well an alligator would do if someone tried keeping it as a pet near Yosemite in the winter. Explain.
  12. 12. Reptiles – Order Testudines Order Testudines or Chelonii – Turtles and Tortoises. 7 species of marine turtles – all live in warm waters. Loggerhead Sea Turtle Green Sea Turtle Hawksbill Sea Turtle
  13. 13. Kemp's Ridley Sea Turtle Olive Ridley Sea Turtle Flatback Sea Turtle Leatherback Sea Turtle Reptiles – Order Testudines
  14. 14. Threats to Sea Turtles Fibropapilloma (FPV) Tumors Pollution may be weakening their immune system, like HIV does in humans.
  15. 15. Threats to Sea Turtles Nesting Threats (loss of nesting habitat) The loss of even one beach can have a significant effect on their population.
  16. 16. Threats to Sea Turtles 5 - 16 Increased Human Presence on beaches.
  17. 17. Threats to Sea Turtles Poaching: killing illegally.
  18. 18. Threats to Sea Turtles Artificial Lighting: baby sea turtles follow the moon light reflection on the ocean after birth. Human lights confuse them and many go the wrong way and die. 5 - 18
  19. 19. Threats to Sea Turtles Nets: Entangled in nets, they sustain serious injuries to their flippers from constriction by the ropes and many drown. 5 - 19
  20. 20. Threats to Sea Turtles Net trawls that are not outfitted with turtle excluder devices (TEDs) do not allow turtles to escape, which result in drowning. 5 - 20 Pacific Loggerhead turtles in MX
  21. 21. Threats to Sea Turtles Pollution - plastic Plastic Real Jellyfish
  22. 22. Threats to Sea Turtles Pollution - plastic Plastic blocking intestines
  23. 23. HW: Threats to Sea Turtles 5 - 23 Research one of the threats to sea turtles. 1. Explain the problem 2. What is being done to help. 3. How can the average person help. 4. Two sources – full links at the bottom of the page. • Intro paragraph • Body paragraphs • Conclusion paragraphDue …
  24. 24. Sea Turtle Review 1. What are the names of two sea turtles? 2. What is the Kingdom, Phylum & Class of turtles? 3. What makes a sea turtle a vertebrate? 4. List 4 things that are reducing the sea turtles and explain how it harms the sea turtles. – (worth four points) 5. What may be causing fibropapilloma tumors? 6. In what human viral infection do we get skin cancer? Why does this type of skin cancer happen?
  25. 25. 5 - 25 The desert tortoise is native to the Mojave desert and Sonoran desert of the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. They can be located in the western Arizona, southeastern California, south Nevada, and the southwestern region of Utah 25,000 squared miles Reptiles – Order Testudines
  26. 26. 5 - 26 Sonoran Desert Desert Tortoises 120,000 squared miles
  27. 27. 5 - 27 Threats: Urbanization • growing towns & cities cause tortoises to lose their homes and food. Desert Tortoise
  28. 28. 5 - 28 Threats: Poaching: taking animals illegally. Desert Tortoise
  29. 29. 5 - 29 Threats: Taken as pets Desert Tortoise
  30. 30. 5 - 30 Threats: •Shooting Desert Tortoise
  31. 31. 5 - 31 Threats: •Roads & Off- roading Desert Tortoise
  32. 32. Desert Tortoise 5 - 32 Threats: Predation: •Stray dogs have killed or maimed tortoises. •Ravens have had a greater impact. Raven have increased as a result of food and trash provided by humans.
  33. 33. Desert Tortoise 5 - 33 Threats: Diseases Bacterial respiratory disease, viral disease, and shell diseases. Mortality may be a result of a weakened immune system due to a combination of factors including drought, poor nutrition, environmental toxins, habitat degradation including exotic plant invasion and fire. Desert Tortoises & Survival 1 Desert Tortoises & Survival 2
  34. 34. 5 - 34 1. Classify tortoises (K,P, C) 2. In what two deserts can one find a desert tortoise? 3. Name three states where one can see a desert tortoise. 4. What are five threats to desert tortoises? 5. What do you think are the two easiest threats to fix and what is your idea on how to fix those two threats? Desert Tortoise Review
  35. 35. Snakes and Lizards Reptiles – Order Squamata
  36. 36. • A few eat plants, most feed on insects. • In California, the most common types feed on beetles, ants, wasps, aphids, grasshoppers, and spiders. • Lizards may be beneficial by eating pest insects. • Lizards are generally egg layers. Western Fence Lizard lays 3 to 20 cream-colored, soft-shelled eggs in pits of damp soil. Lizards hibernate during winter months. • Lose their tails when pursued by an enemy. The separated tail continues to wriggle while the rest of the lizard escapes. In time, a new tail will usually grow back. Lizard eating a roachLizards
  37. 37. Southern California Lizards Southern Alligator Lizard Western Fence Lizard (most common type of CA. lizard) Southern Alligator Lizard Western Fence Lizard Large space between limbs Thick mid- section Blue
  38. 38. 5 - 38 Southern California Lizards Western Side-blotched Lizard California Legless Lizard No external ear openings are visible. presence of eyelids is apparent when these lizards blink. Dark spot
  39. 39. 5 - 39 Southern California Lizards https://nhm.org/site/activities-programs/citizen- science/rascals/identifying-rascals Identification of Lizards Link below.
  40. 40. Only one lizard is a true marine reptile – the marine iguana. – Not in California 5 - 40 Marine Iguanas Marine Iguana
  41. 41. Only one lizard is poisonous in USA (neurotoxin)– in So. Arizona 5 - 41 Gila Monster
  42. 42. Characteristics of Snakes • In many the left lung is reduced or absent • Lay eggs or give birth to live young - rattlesnakes give birth to live young Snake Live Birth Reptiles – Order Squamata Snakes Corn Snakes Mating
  43. 43. • Snake about to shed – gray colored eyes 5 - 43
  44. 44. Yellow-Bellied Sea Snake: Tends to keep to the warmer waters just south, closer to Baja California, Mexico SEA SNAKES Reptiles – Order Squamata Snakes
  45. 45. L.A. Times Reptiles – Order Squamata Snakes Careful about articles you read. Writers are not scientists and like articles that get your attention often through fear.
  46. 46. Southwest Venomous Snakes Reptiles – Order Squamata Snakes
  47. 47. Southwest Venomous Snakes Pit Vipers: Two movable fangs, a heat-sensitive pit organ between each eye and nostril which help it hunt warm-blooded prey. Primarily in the New World. Some species lay eggs; others produce live young. Stout-bodied snakes Snakes -Vipers
  48. 48. 5 - 48 Southwest Venomous Snakes Pit Vipers 1. Copperheads: Typically brown or orange in color, the shade of dead leaves. This coloration and pattern helps them to blend in with the forest floor. The pattern is comprised of wide, irregular bands. Rarely lethal (only 3 confirmed deaths in the last 120 years. Heart-shaped head & eyes slit shaped.
  49. 49. Southwest Venomous Snakes 2. Cottonmouth / Water Moccasin: Semi-aquatic snakes. Large, triangular heads with an eye slit through the eye, and large jowls. Typically 2-4 feet. Keeled-scaled, heavy-bodied snakes. Their coloration is highly variable: they can be marked with dark crossbands on a brown and yellow ground color or completely brown or black. Older adults are often dark and solid-colored.
  50. 50. 5 - 50 Southwest Venomous Snakes 3. Rattlesnakes: Generally not aggressive, rattlesnakes strike when threatened or deliberately provoked, but given room they will retreat. Most snake bites occur when a rattlesnake is handled or accidentally touched by someone walking or climbing. The majority of snakebites occur on the hands, feet and ankles.
  51. 51. 5 - 51 Elapids: • All are venomous, some highly venomous. • Have hollow, fixed fangs used to inject venom • Most have long, slender bodies with smooth scales • Ex. Coral, cobras, sea snakes, adders and more. Mostly found in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Southwest Venomous Snakes
  52. 52. 5 - 52 4. Coral Snakes: Will almost always attempt to flee, and bite only as a last resort. Coral snakes have short fangs that cannot penetrate thick leather clothing. Any skin penetration is an immediate medical emergency. Contain a powerful neurotoxin that paralyzes the breathing muscles. Large doses of anti- venom are often required to save a victim's. Usually only mild pain associated with a bite, but respiratory failure can occur within hours. Elapids
  53. 53. Coral Snake and Milk Snake
  54. 54. • Venom is a prey immobilization adaptation - it is composed of neurotoxins (attack nervous system) which can stop breathing. Ex. Gila Monsters & Coral Snakes. • and/or hemotoxins (attack circulatory system) - a type that destroys red blood cells and stops blood from clotting. If left in the system long enough, a victim will begin to bleed from the skin, sometimes even eyes. Reptiles – Order Squamata Snakes How to Survive a Bite
  55. 55. 5 - 55
  56. 56. • Generally not aggressive, rattlesnakes strike when threatened or deliberately provoked, but given room they will retreat. Most snake bites occur when a rattlesnake is handled or accidentally touched by someone walking or climbing. The majority of snakebites occur on the hands, feet and ankles. Order: Squamata - Snakes Rattlesnake in Dog Yard
  57. 57. • Never go barefoot or wear sandals when walking through wild areas. Wear hiking boots. • When hiking, stick to well-used trails and wear over-the-ankle boots and loose-fitting long pants. Avoid tall grass, weeds and heavy underbrush where snakes may hide during the day. Order: Squamata - Snakes
  58. 58. • Do not step or put your hands where you cannot see, and avoid wandering around in the dark. • Step ON logs and rocks, never over them, and be especially careful when climbing rocks or gathering firewood. Check out stumps or logs before sitting down, and • shake out sleeping bags before use. Order: Squamata - Snakes
  59. 59. Order: Squamata - Snakes • Be careful when stepping over the doorstep as well. • Snakes like to crawl along the edge of buildings where they are protected on one side. • Never hike alone. Always have someone with you who can assist in an emergency.
  60. 60. • Do not handle a freshly killed snake, it can still inject venom. • Teach children early to respect snakes and to leave them alone. Children are naturally curious and will pick up snakes. Order: Squamata - Snakes Snake Bite
  61. 61. AWorld Without Snakes Mouse Plague 5 - 61 Other important animals in the control of rats & mice – coyotes, hawks & owls. Order: Squamata - Snakes Rat Invasion
  62. 62. 5 - 62 Order: Squamata Bill Nye Part 2 Snakes
  63. 63. 5 - 63 Order: Squamata California Non-Venomous Snakes
  64. 64. 5 - 64 Rubber Boa Rosy Boa
  65. 65. 5 - 65 Sharp-Tailed Snake This harmless and secretive snake is common along most of the north and central coast and in the Sierra Nevada foothills. It is often found in backyards under debris, and rarely seen active day or night. Color
  66. 66. 5 - 66 This harmless little snake is common but secretive. Usually discovered hiding underneath surface objects in moist areas, but sometimes seen crawling in daylight. Ring-necked Snake
  67. 67. 5 - 67 Chapter5Pages5-77to5-80 This harmless snake is common along most of the coast and in the Sierra Nevada foothills. Often mistaken for a gartersnake, this slender, fast snake is active during the day. Striped Racer Shape of head Stripe
  68. 68. This harmless snake is common in southern California and less common in the San Joaquin Valley and foothills, and is active during the day. Coachwhip / Racer
  69. 69. These harmless snakes are common in many habitats throughout the state, typically in areas near water. 5 - 69 Gartersnake
  70. 70. 5 - 70 Gopher Snake This harmless snake is common throughout California, and is active during the day. Often found in yards and gardens.
  71. 71. Kingsnake 5 - 71 This harmless snake is common throughout most of California. It is active day and night. It is variable in appearance and can black or brown, and banded or striped.
  72. 72. DIET: lizards, mice and other small mammals, reptile eggs, and birds. Patch-Nosed Snake Large scale in front
  73. 73. Harmless snake common throughout most of the state, excluding the deserts. Active during the day. Fast moving and solid in color. Grey, greenish, or brown. Young have a light and dark pattern. Western Racer
  74. 74. Links 5 - 74 http://www.californiaherps.com/identification/snakesid/snakes.i d.html http://www.californiaherps.com/identification/snakesid/com mon.html https://www.youtube.com/watch?v =W1KUXm0MUrY Rattlesnakes – Wild Things Rattlesnakes [Full Documentary] Wild Things
  75. 75. Links Southwest Snakes http://www.southwesternherp.com/snakes/index.html
  76. 76. California Snakes or Rattlesnakes 5 - 76 Order: Squamata - Snakes
  77. 77. 5 - 77 Order: Squamata - Snakes Invasive Species – Burmese Python The Python Part 1 The Python Part 2
  78. 78. 1. List three types of animals in the class reptilia. 2. Why are reptiles considered vertebrates? 3. What member of crocodilia is found most in U.S? 4. What are two poisonous snakes in California? 5. What is the only venomous lizard in the U.S. 6. Why are snakes so important? 7. Differentiate between a rattlesnake and a non-venomous CA snake? 8. Can you think of two other animals (not reptiles) that control rats? 9. How do reptiles regulate their body temperature? Snakes Review
  79. 79. • ectothermic (or cold-blooded) • metamorphose from a water-breathing form to an adult air-breathing form, or to a paedomorph (retains some juvenile characteristics). Mudpuppies, retain juvenile gills. 5 - 79 The Vanishing Frog Parts 1-2 Class Amphibia – Frogs, Toads, Salamanders, Newts & Caecilians
  80. 80. • Many amphibians lay their eggs in water. Amphibians are similar to reptiles, but reptiles eggs have an amniotic like mammals and birds. • Amphibians also have a larval stage. • FYI-The study of amphibians is called batrachology. 5 - 80 Class Amphibia
  81. 81. Class Amphibia • Amphibians are ecological indicators (can inform us about the health of the ecosystem. • Many amphibians are now threatened or extinct.
  82. 82. • Threatened: likely to become an endangered species in the near future. • Endangered Species: at risk of extinction. • Extinct: none are found alive.
  83. 83. Class: Amphibia • frogs and toads
  84. 84. 5 - 84 ? Class: Amphibia
  85. 85. salamanders 5 - 85 Class: Amphibia
  86. 86. Caecilians: limbless amphibians that resemble snakes. 5 - 86 Class: Amphibia
  87. 87. Reptiles & Amphibians - Life 5 - 87 Reptiles - Bill Nye Part 3 Class: Amphibia https://www.youtube.com/watch?v =eIAG852keFA https://www.youtube.com/watch?ti me_continue=1&v=HJtG4STlGDs Crocodiles The Reptiles: Snakes
  88. 88. Amphibian Review 1. What are three types of amphibians? 2. Why are amphibians considered vertebrates? 3. Metamorphosis: 4. What is an ecological indicator? 5. What is ectothermic or cold blooded? 6. What is chytrid? 7. Why are snakes so important? 8. Differentiate b/w amphibians and reptiles? 9. Differentiate b/w endangered and threatened?
  89. 89. Reptiles & Amphibians Test on …? • Study your notes • Will collect your Cornell notes on reptiles and amphibians. Typed cover page with full name, period, title and date • 3-5 Questions on the left side of each page of notes. • Summary at end of reptiles and at end of amphibians. • On Test: • Reptiles, Amphibians & Chytrid • Sea turtle threats, including FPV • Desert Tortoises and their concerns 5 - 89
  90. 90. Short Answers CW or HW: Reptiles & Amphibians Test Prep 1. List 5 things that threaten sea turtles and explain each a little. Write clearly and use ink. 2. List 5 things that are threatening the desert tortoises and explain each a little. 3. List 2 differences between reptiles & amphibians
  91. 91. HW or CW: 15 MC on Reptiles & Amphibians • 3 options to choose from • Circle just the letter of the correct answer – not the entire answer. • No true/false, No yes/no answers • No ridiculous questions or answers 5 - 91

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