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  1. 1. Reptiles,Amphibians & Birds Mr. R.G. Estrella R.G. Estrella
  2. 2. ClassificationKingdomPhylumClassOrderFamilyGenusSpecies King Phillip Came Over For Grape Soda R.G. Estrella
  3. 3. Chordate & Vertebrate Chordate: dorsal nerve cord, a notochord Vertebrate: backbones and spinal columns R.G. Estrella
  4. 4. Reptiles Kingdom: Animal Phylum: Chordata Class: Reptile R.G. Estrella
  5. 5. Characteristics of Reptiles Class Reptilia mostly live on land or in freshwater. Relatively few live in the ocean. Herpetology: the study of reptiles. Characteristics:  Generally cold-blooded – Ectothermic. (Thermoregulation is the act of regulating ones body temperature. This term is usually reserved for animals, such as reptiles, that maintain their body temperatures through external means. HW 5-5 R.G. Estrella
  6. 6.  Have scales. Most reproduce by laying internally fertilized eggs. Breathe with lungs at all stages of their lives. 5-6 R.G. Estrella
  7. 7.  Order Crocodilia – Alligators, Crocodiles, and Caimans.  Are semi-aquatic with most living in freshwater. Exception is the giant saltwater crocodile. 5-7 American Alligator R.G. Estrella
  8. 8.  Order Crocodilia – Crocodiles American Crocodile 5-8 R.G. Estrella
  9. 9.  Is it a crocodile or an alligator?crocodile has a very long, narrow, V-shaped snout,while the alligators snout is wider and U-shaped.Crocodiles top and bottom teeth are visible from theside, whereas alligators bottom teeth are not. Alligatorare found in North America9 and also in north China 5- R.G. Estrella
  10. 10.  Order Crocodilia – Caimans. They are relatively small crocodilians, (most species reaching lengths of only a few meters, although one species, the Black caiman, can exceed 4 metres (13 ft) in length).Chapter 5 Pages 5-77 to 5-80 5 - 10 Caimans R.G. Estrella
  11. 11.  Order Crocodilia  Giant Saltwater Crocodile are the biggest crocs in the world. 5 - 11 R.G. Estrella
  12. 12.  OrderCrocodilia  Crocodile eats man! 5 - 12 R.G. Estrella
  13. 13. Reptiles / Crocodilia Review #11. What are three members of the crocodilia order?2. Classify the groups alligators and crocodiles belong to. K, P, C, O3. Why are crocodiles chordates?4. What does “cold blooded” really mean?5. What are three characteristics of reptiles?6. How do reptiles reproduce?7. How can someone tell an alligator apart from a crocodile?8. What is the largest member of crocodilia?9. What is the smallest member of crocodilia?10. What is the difference between being a 5 - 13 R.G. Estrella
  14. 14.  Order Chelonia – Turtles and Tortoises.  7 species of marine turtles – all live in warm waters. Loggerhead Sea Turtle Green Sea Turtle Hawksbill Sea Turtle R.G. Estrella
  15. 15.  Order Chelonia – Turtles and Tortoises. Kemps Ridley Sea Turtle Olive Ridley Sea Turtle Flatback Sea Turtle Leatherback Sea Turtle R.G. Estrella
  16. 16. Threats to Sea Turtles  Fibropapilloma (FPV) Tumors (may end up killing more sea turtles than humans do. Pollution may be weakening their immune system. 5 - 16 R.G. Estrella
  17. 17. Threats to Sea Turtles  Nesting Threats (loss of nesting habitat) The loss of even one beach can have a significant effect on their population. R.G. Estrella
  18. 18. Threats to Sea Turtles  Increased Human Presence on beaches.Chapter 5 Pages 5-77 to 5-80 5 - 18 R.G. Estrella
  19. 19. Threats to Sea Turtles  Poaching R.G. Estrella
  20. 20. Threats to Sea Turtles Artificial Lighting: baby sea turtles instinctively follow the moon light into the ocean after birth. Human lights confuse them and go the wrong way and die. 5 - 20 R.G. Estrella
  21. 21. Threats to Sea TurtlesNetsEntangled in gillnets, pound nets, and the ropes associated with longline and trap/pot fishing gear.Drown and suffer serious injuries to their flippers from constriction by the ropes.Longline gear can also hook turtles in the jaw, esophagus, or flippers. 5 - 21 R.G. Estrella
  22. 22. Threats to Sea TurtlesNetsTrawls that are not outfitted with turtle excluder devices (TEDs) do not allow turtles to escape, which often result in drowning. Nets Video 5 - 22 R.G. Estrella
  23. 23. Threats to Sea TurtlesPollution Real Jellyfish Plastic R.G. Estrella
  24. 24. Threats to Sea TurtlesPollution Plastic blocking intestines R.G. Estrella
  25. 25. Using your notes, pickone of the threats tosea turtles and explainwhat it is. Explain ifanything is being doneto stop it and what youthink people can do tohelp save the seaturtles.• Intro paragraph• Body paragraphs – 1paragraph per pointyou make.• ConclusionparagraphTyped 5 - 25 R.G. Estrella
  26. 26. Sea Turtle Review1. What are the names of two sea turtles?2. What is the K, P, Subphylum, C and Order of turtles?3. What makes a sea turtle a vertebrate?4. List 4 things that are reducing the populations of sea turtles.5. What may be causing fibropapilloma tumors?6. In what human disease do we get skin cancer? Why does the skin cancer happen? Pacific Loggerhead turtles in MX R.G. Estrella
  27. 27. Tortoises: Class Reptilia. Order TestudinataThe desert tortoise is native to the Mojave desert andSonoran desert of the southwestern United States andnorthwestern Mexico. They can be located in the westernArizona, southeastern California, south Nevada, and thesouthwestern region of Utah 5 - 27 R.G. Estrella
  28. 28. TortoisesSonoran Desert Desert Tortoises & Survival P.1 Desert Tortoises & Survival P.2 5 - 28 R.G. Estrella
  29. 29. TortoisesThreats:•Urbanization • growing towns & cities cause tortoises to lose their homes and food. 5 - 29 R.G. Estrella
  30. 30. TortoisesThreats:•Poaching R.G. Estrella
  31. 31. TortoisesThreats:•Taken as pets R.G. Estrella
  32. 32. TortoisesThreats:•Shooting R.G. Estrella
  33. 33. TortoisesThreats:•Roads & Off-Roading R.G. Estrella
  34. 34. Threats:•Predation: •Stray dogs have killed or maimed tortoises. •Ravens have had a greater impact. Raven populations have increased as a result of food and trash provided by a growing human population. Raven populations in the desert have resulted in higher predation rates on young tortoises. R.G. Estrella
  35. 35. TortoisesThreats:•Diseases: Multiple diseases havebeen identified, including bacterialrespiratory disease, viral disease, andshell diseases. Mortality may be aresult of a weakened immune systemdue to a combination of factorsincluding drought, poor nutrition,environmental toxicants, or habitatdegradation including exotic plantinvasion and fire. Desert Tortoises & Survival P.3 Desert Tortoises & Survival P.4 R.G. Estrella
  36. 36. Tortoise Review1. Classify tortoises to order. KPCO2. In what deserts can one find a desert tortoise?3. Name three states where one can see a desert tortoise.4. What are five threats to desert tortoises?5. What are your ideas on how to fix two threats? HW: Write a short essay on two things you would do to protect the desert tortoise if you were mayor of a town where they are found. - Intro, Body (2 Par.), Conclusion. 5 - 36 R.G. Estrella
  37. 37.  Order Squamata – Snakes and Lizards.  61 species of sea snake are true marine organisms. SEA SERPENTS R.G. Estrella
  38. 38. Short AnswersA. Make a list of 5 things that threaten sea turtles and explain what each is just a little. Write clearly and use ink.B. Make a list of 5 things that are killing the desert tortoises. List as many as you can remember and explain each a little. Use ink and print clearly. R.G. Estrella
  39. 39.  Order Squamata – Snakes and Lizards.  Only one lizard is a true marine reptile – the marine iguana.Chapter 5 Pages 5-77 to 5-80 Marine Iguanas 5 - 39 R.G. Estrella
  40. 40.  Order Squamata – Snakes and Lizards.  Only one lizard is poisonous – Gila Monster. Found in ArizonaChapter 5 Pages 5-77 to 5-80 5 - 40 R.G. Estrella
  41. 41. California Venomous Snakes: Rattlesnake Sidewinder 5 - 41 R.G. Estrella
  42. 42. Rattlesnake in yard5 - 42 R.G. Estrella
  43. 43. California Venomous Snakes: Ring-necked Snake Yellow-bellied Sea Snake R.G. Estrella
  44. 44. Rattlesnakes North America, 10-15 fatalities from snake bites  In 2010 there were 34 fatal dog attacks in the USA. More than 350,000 dog bite victims are seen in many snakes the left lung is reduced or absent some snakes lay eggs and others give birth to live young rattlesnakes give birth to live young venom is a prey immobilization adaptation. venom is composed of neurotoxins (attack nervous system) and/or hemotoxins (attack circulatory system) neurotoxins in gila monsters, coral snakes (not in CA). R.G. Estrella
  45. 45. A World Without Snakes Rat Invasion! Mouse Plague R.G. Estrella
  46. 46. Bill Nye Part 2 SnakesBill Nye Part 3 Reptiles R.G. Estrella
  47. 47.  California Non-venomous Snakes:  Rosy Boa    Rubber Boa R.G. Estrella
  48. 48.  CaliforniaNon-venomous Snakes: Sharp-Tailed Snake Shovel-Nosed SnakeChapter 5 Pages 5-77 to 5-80 R.G. Estrella
  49. 49.  California Non-venomous Snakes:Black-headed Snake Southern Watersnake R.G. Estrella
  50. 50.  California Non-venomous Snakes: Striped Racer Whipsnake R.G. Estrella
  51. 51.  California Non-venomous Snakes: Threadsnake Coachwhip R.G. Estrella
  52. 52.  CaliforniaNon-venomous Snakes:Gartersnake Glossy Snake 5 - 52 R.G. Estrella
  53. 53.  California Non-venomous Snakes: Gopher Snake Groundsnake R.G. Estrella
  54. 54. California Non-venomous Snakes: Kingsnake Leaf-nosed Snake Long-nosed Snake 5 - 54 R.G. Estrella
  55. 55. California Non-venomous Snakes: Lyresnake Nightsnake R.G. Estrella
  56. 56. California Non-venomous Snakes:Patch-nosed Snake Yellow-bellied Racer 5 - 56 R.G. Estrella
  57. 57. Coral Snake and Milk Snake 5 - 57 R.G. Estrella
  58. 58. SnakesThe Python Part 1The Python Part 2The Python Part 3The Python Part 4The Python Part 5 R.G. Estrella
  59. 59. Reptile Review1. What are three orders of reptiles we learned about?2. Name two kinds of reptiles in the order Squamata.3. Why are reptiles considered chordates?4. Why are reptiles considered vertebrates?5. What member of crocodilia is found most in the U.S?6. What is the most common poisonous snake in California?7. What is the only venomous lizard in the U.S.8. Why are snakes so important?9. How can you distinguish between a rattlesnake and a non- venomous California snake? (3 ways)10. List two other types of animals that control rats. R.G. Estrella
  60. 60. Class Amphibia Amphibians: frogs, salamanders, and caecilians. ectothermic (or cold-blooded) metamorphose from a juvenile water-breathing form to an adult air-breathing form, or to a paedomorph (retains some juvenile characteristics). Mudpuppies, for example, retain juvenile gills in adulthood. 5 - 60 R.G. Estrella
  61. 61. Class Amphibia The three orders of amphibians are Anura (frogs and toads), Caudata (salamanders and newts), and Gymnophiona (caecilians). Many amphibians lay their eggs in water. Amphibians are superficially similar to reptiles, but reptiles are amniotes (eggs have an amniotic sac), as are mammals and birds. Amphibians also have a larval stage. The study of amphibians is called batrachology. R.G. Estrella
  62. 62. Class Amphibia Amphibians are ecological indicators (communicate information about the environment) In recent decades there has been a dramatic decline in amphibian populations around the globe. Many species are now threatened The Vanishing or extinct. Frog Parts 1-2 R.G. Estrella
  63. 63. Class Amphibia Threatened: a species that is likely to become endangered in the near future. Endangered Species: a species at risk of extinction. Especially when officially designated as such by a governmental agency. Extinct: no longer in existence; Died out. R.G. Estrella
  64. 64. Class: Amphibia Order: Anura frogs and toads R.G. Estrella
  65. 65. Class Amphibia A. ? B. ? R.G. Estrella
  66. 66. Class: Amphibia Order: Caudata salamanders 5 - 66 R.G. Estrella
  67. 67. Class: Amphibia Order: Gymnophiona Caecilians: limbless amphibians that resemble snakes. The Vanishing Frog Parts 3-End 5 - 67 R.G. Estrella
  68. 68. Reptilia & AmphibiaReptiles & Amphibians - Life R.G. Estrella
  69. 69. Amphibian & Reptile Review1. What are three types of amphibians?2. Name two types of reptiles in the order Squamata.3. Why are amphibians considered chordates?4. Why are amphibians considered vertebrates?5. What is special about amphibian skin?6. What is an ecological indicator?7. What is the only poisonous snake in the hills of L.A?8. What is chytrid?9. Why are amphibians important to human health?10. What are three differences between amphibians and reptiles?11. What is the difference b/w endangered and threatened? 5 - 69 R.G. Estrella
  70. 70. Reptiles & Amphibians Test on …? Study your notes Will collect your cornell notes on reptiles and amphibians. Typed cover page with full name, period, title and date 3-5 Questions on the left side of each page of notes. Summary at end of reptiles and at end of amphibians. On test: study about  Chytrid and amphibians.  Sea turtle threats, including FPV  Desert Tortoises and their concerns R.G. Estrella
  71. 71. Characteristics of Birds Birds are vertebrates in class Aves. They share several characteristics:  Feathers, unique to this class.  Forelimbs that are wings.  A four-chambered heart and lay internally fertilized eggs. 5 - 71 R.G. Estrella
  72. 72.  Marine birds are important to the marine ecosystem:  They are predators that consume fish, crustaceans, and mollusks.  In turn they are prey to marine mammals and sharks.  They supply guano – a significant source of nutrients, specially organic nitrogen important to sea life. R.G. Estrella
  73. 73.  Many species of birds exhibit related adaptations to an aquatic life:  Webbed feet for swimming and floating on the surface.  Bill adaptations suited to their marine prey, like the pelican’s pouch.  The cormorant flies over water, and dives in it in pursuit of prey.  Birds, like the albatross, have wings and flight characteristics adapted to long-duration flying over wide expanses of water.  Ornithology: the study of birds. 5 - 73 R.G. Estrella
  74. 74. Introduction to Southern CaliforniaBirds R.G. Estrella
  75. 75. House Sparrow Mockingbird House Sparrow Northern Mockingbirdl House FinchHouse Finch Purple Finch R.G. Estrella
  76. 76. Anna’s Hummingbird Costa’s HummingbirdCalifornia Towhee Annas Hummingbird Up Close Anas Hummingbird Call Hummingbirds Magic in the Air R.G. Estrella
  77. 77. Mourning Dove Coo Barn Swallows California Quail Call California QuailBarn Swallow Mourning Dove CA Quail R.G. Estrella
  78. 78. Scrub JayScrub JayStellar Jay Stellers Jay Call Black Phoebe Black Phoebe R.G. Estrella
  79. 79. Raven Crow Raven & Crow Pets 5 - 79 R.G. Estrella
  80. 80. Ravens Ravens 1 Adaptability Ravens 2 Feeding Time Ravens 3 The Roost Ravens 4 Intelligence R.G. Estrella
  81. 81. A B R.G. Estrella
  82. 82. Brown Pelican Great Blue Heron Western Grebe R.G. Estrella
  83. 83. Cormorant Black Crowned Night Heron Mallard (Duck) R.G. Estrella
  84. 84. Great Egret Cattle EgretSnowy Egret 5 - 84 R.G. Estrella
  85. 85. Turkey Vulture Turkey Vulture - Big Santa Anita Canyon Turkey Vulture PreeningEstrella R.G. itself
  86. 86. RaptorsBirds of Prey1. Sharp talons (claws)2. Sharp beak3. CarnivorousRaptors - Part 1Raptors - Part 2 R.G. Estrella
  87. 87. Barn Owl Great Horned OwlBurrowing Owl R.G. Estrella
  88. 88. Golden Eagle R.G. Estrella
  89. 89. Bald Eagle R.G. Estrella
  90. 90. Northern Harrier Red Tailed HawkCoopers Hawk 5 - 90 R.G. Estrella
  91. 91.  Brewers Blackbird Starling White Crowned Sparrow R.G. Estrella
  92. 92. Homework:Make flashcards using index cards or cut very neatly some poster paper with a paper cutter of the birds you learned to identify in this section.Print the picture from the internet and glue it on one side, and write the common name of the bird neatly on the other side. (# birds)Due in one week – date?Top card is your full name, title of class, dateUse a rubber band or a ring to keep cards together. R.G. Estrella
  93. 93. Aves Review #11. Classify birds, remember to use “KPCO”2. What are three characteristics of birds? CLASSWORK?3. What is guano and why is it NOOOOOO…. important?4. What do sea birds eat? bin/gt/tpl.h,content=353 R.G. Estrella
  94. 94. Special Attributes of Penguins Penguins, order Sphenisciformes, all live in the Southern hemisphere. Penguins make up about 80% of all Antarctic birds and by far outnumber even the massive marine mammal populations. R.G. Estrella
  95. 95. Special Attributes of Penguins Not all penguins live in cold places.  Penguins are found on the coasts of South America, Africa, Australia, New Zealand, and the nutrient-rich waters surrounding the Galapagos Islands near the equator, R.G. Estrella
  96. 96. Special Attributes of Penguins  They cannot fly, but they’re as at home underwater as other birds are in the air.  They dive hundreds of times daily hunting for food.  They can reach depths of 100 meters (328 feet) and deeper. R.G. Estrella
  97. 97. Murres: Penguins in the northernhemisphere?  Murres look very similar to penguins, but are found in the northern hemisphere and can fly.  (what do you think may happen in a million years?) 5 - 97 R.G. Estrella
  98. 98. Bay of FundyWhere the Bay Becomes the Sea 5 - 98 R.G. Estrella
  99. 99. DON’T WE HAVE A BIRD QUIZ?5 - 99 R.G. Estrella