08 types of tree

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08 types of tree

  1. 1. WOOD MATERIALS TECHNOLOGY 4th Edition
  2. 2. Chapter 8 Types of Tree
  3. 3. Trees – 2 groups • Coniferous • Softwood • Needle-like leaves • Deciduous • Hardwood • Broad leaves
  4. 4. Deciduous trees (hardwoods) • • • • • • • • • Produce hardwood timber Lose their leaves in autumn (except holly) Trunk divides to develop large branches Branches are larger and more irregular Broad leaves Seeds borne in nuts/berries Slow growing Wood is more valuable Wood is harder and more durable
  5. 5. Coniferous trees (softwoods) • • • • • • • • • • Produce softwood timber Evergreen (except larch) Straight trunk Smaller branches Needle-like leaves Seeds borne in pine cones Symmetrical in shape Grow quickly Wood is usually cheaper Wood is usually softer and less durable
  6. 6. Deciduous trees
  7. 7. Tree type Outstanding features Timber uses Oak •Hard, durable wood •Finishes well •Silver grain when cut radially Elm •Attractive grain •Resists splitting •Moisture resistant Birch •Not a large tree •Common in Ireland •Light-coloured wood •Making plywood •Furniture •Flooring Ash •Very common tree •Grows quickly •Hard, durable wood •Wood is light-coloured •Distinctive grain •Elastic properties •Hurleys •Furniture •Tool handles •Laminating •Furniture •Doors •Flooring •Boats •Barrels •Woodturning •Garden furniture •Outdoor projects
  8. 8. Oak (hardwood) • • • • • Seed called an acorn Hard, durable wood Finishes well Silver grain when cut radially Corrosive to steel – use brass fittings • Uses − − − − − Furniture Doors Flooring Boats Barrels
  9. 9. Ash (hardwood) • • • • • • Very common tree Grows quickly Hard, durable wood Wood is light-coloured Distinctive grain Elastic properties • Uses − Hurleys − Furniture − Tool handles − Laminating
  10. 10. Beech (hardwood) • Common slow growing tree with smooth grey bark • Light-coloured wood • Close-grained • Durable and hard-wearing • Uses − Furniture and flooring − Mallets, bench hooks, gauges − Kitchen utensils
  11. 11. Birch (hardwood) • Not a large tree • Common in Ireland • Light-coloured wood • Uses − Making plywood − Furniture − Flooring
  12. 12. Horse chestnut (hardwood) • Seeds – conkers • Light-coloured wood • Not durable • Uses − Packing cases − Wood pulp
  13. 13. Other hardwood tree’s •Elm •Spanish chestnut •Lime •Cherry •Sycamore •Maple
  14. 14. Elm (hardwood)  Attractive grain • Resists splitting • Moisture resistant • Uses − Woodturning − Garden furniture − Outdoor projects
  15. 15. Spanish chestnut (hardwood) • Wood similar to oak • Light brown colour • Uses − Flooring − Kitchen units − Furniture
  16. 16. Lime (hardwood) • • • • Fast growing tree Absorbs air pollution Pale cream-coloured wood Easy to work with • Uses − Carving − Musical instruments
  17. 17. Cherry (hardwood) • Small decorative tree • Expensive wood • Rich brown colour • Uses − High-quality furniture − Flooring − Cabinets − Veneers
  18. 18. Sycamore (hardwood) • Very common in Ireland • Winged seeds – helicopters • Light-coloured wood • Uses − Carving − Veneering − Woodturning − Violin making
  19. 19. Maple (hardwood) • Hard-wearing wood • Light-coloured • Durable • Uses − Kitchen units − Maple flooring − Veneers − Furniture making
  20. 20. Coniferous trees
  21. 21. Scots pine (softwood) • Tall tree – few branches • Wood is light-coloured with a distinct grain • Wood is called red deal • Easy to work with • Finishes well • Uses − School project work − Construction timber − Doors and furniture
  22. 22. Douglas fir (softwood) • Needles grow all the way around the twig • Wood is reddish brown • Decorative grain • Light-weight and strong • Tough, durable wood • Resistant to decay • Uses − Outdoor furniture − Gates − Railway sleepers
  23. 23. Sitka spruce (softwood) • Most common in Irish forestry – likes wet soil • Strong wood • Straight-grained • Uses − Structural timber − Paper-making − Flooring − Fibreboard and chipboard manufacture
  24. 24. Larch (softwood) • Only conifer to lose needles in winter • Fast-growing, attractive tree • Wood is reddish colour • Wood tends to warp • Uses − Boat building − Light furniture − Exterior joinery − Fence posts
  25. 25. Lodgepole pine (softwood) • Needles in pairs and densely grouped • Attractive wood – reddish brown colour • Wood tends to have a lot of knots • Uses − Internal joinery − Chipboard and fibreboard manufacture
  26. 26. Timber regions of the world
  27. 27. Tropical Rainforests Climate has high rainfall and high temperature This area runs around the equator As there are no seasons growth occurs all year round Examples: Mahogany Balsa Ebony Teak
  28. 28. Quiz Do you know your trees?
  29. 29. Name the trees pictured below − Ash − Beech
  30. 30. Name the trees pictured below − Scots pine − Oak
  31. 31. What tree is shown on the Canadian flag? − Maple tree
  32. 32. Which conifer tree is the most common in Irish forestry plantations? − Sitka spruce
  33. 33. Name a conifer tree that is deciduous − The larch tree loses its leaves in winter
  34. 34. What type of trees grow in Zone A on the map? ZONE A − Coniferous trees

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