Lipids

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Lecture no 5 and 6
Date:=20-10-2011
Given by:- Sir. Muhammad Tanveer

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Lipids

  1. 1. LIPIDS Muhammad Tanveer Khan
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Lipids constitute a broad group of naturally occurring molecules which include waxes, fats, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins, monoglycerides, diglycerides, phospholipids and others. </li></ul>
  3. 3. FIXED OILS <ul><li>Fixed oils are esters of fatty acid with glycerol. </li></ul>
  4. 4. PROPERTIES <ul><li>Non-irritant </li></ul><ul><li>Odorless </li></ul><ul><li>Tasteless </li></ul><ul><li>Non-volatile </li></ul><ul><li>Insoluble in water and soluble in organic solvents </li></ul><ul><li>Produce greasy mark on paper </li></ul><ul><li>Upon heating strongly, undergo decomposition </li></ul><ul><li>Upon hydrolysis, yield glycerol and fatty acid </li></ul>
  5. 5. CHEMISTRY <ul><li>Fixed oils are esters of fatty acid with glycerol. These </li></ul><ul><li>May be; </li></ul><ul><li>Monoglycerides </li></ul><ul><li>Diglycerides </li></ul><ul><li>Triglycerides </li></ul>
  6. 6. CLASSIFICATION <ul><li>On the basis of their ability to absorb </li></ul><ul><li>oxygen from air; </li></ul><ul><li>Drying oil </li></ul><ul><li>Non-drying oil </li></ul><ul><li>Semi-drying oil </li></ul>
  7. 7. a) Drying oil <ul><li>When exposed to air, undergo oxidation and form tough and hard film. These are usually used in paints and varnishes. </li></ul><ul><li>For example; </li></ul><ul><li>Linseed oil </li></ul>b) Non-Drying oil These oils neither undergo oxidation nor form tough and hard film. For example; Olive oil
  8. 8. c) Semi-Drying oil <ul><li>When exposed to air, undergo little bit oxidation and form tough and thin film. </li></ul><ul><li>For example; </li></ul><ul><li>Cottonseed oil </li></ul>
  9. 9. METHODS OF OBTAINING FIXED OILS <ul><li>Direct expression </li></ul><ul><li>Solvent extraction </li></ul><ul><li>Steam treatment + extraction </li></ul>
  10. 10. COTTONSEED OIL <ul><li>Botanical origin: </li></ul><ul><li>Gossypium herbaceum </li></ul><ul><li>Family: </li></ul><ul><li>Malvaceae </li></ul><ul><li>Part used: </li></ul><ul><li>Seeds </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Collection: </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Constituents: </li></ul><ul><li>Glycerides of; </li></ul><ul><li>Linoleic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Oleic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Palmitic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Stearic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Arachidic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Myristic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Uses: </li></ul><ul><li>Food </li></ul><ul><li>Emollient </li></ul><ul><li>Vehicle for injections </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation of hydrogenated vegetable oils </li></ul><ul><li>Soap manufacture </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Toxicity: </li></ul><ul><li>Occur due to intravenous administration of </li></ul><ul><li>cottonseed oil emulsion. </li></ul><ul><li>Acute toxicity includes following symptoms; </li></ul><ul><li>Fever </li></ul><ul><li>Pain in back or chest </li></ul><ul><li>Nausea </li></ul><ul><li>Vomiting </li></ul><ul><li>Headache </li></ul><ul><li>Tachycardia </li></ul><ul><li>Dizziness </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>chronic toxicity includes following symptoms; </li></ul><ul><li>GIT bleeding </li></ul><ul><li>Mild anemia </li></ul><ul><li>Defects in blood clotting </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment of toxicity: </li></ul><ul><li>IV hydrocortisone sodium succinate 50grams </li></ul><ul><li>Promethazine 50mg </li></ul><ul><li>Heparin (to aid clearance of fat from circulation) </li></ul>
  15. 15. CASTER OIL <ul><li>Botanical origin: </li></ul><ul><li>Ricinus communis </li></ul><ul><li>Family: </li></ul><ul><li>Euphorbeaceae </li></ul><ul><li>Part used: </li></ul><ul><li>seeds </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Collection: </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Constituents: </li></ul><ul><li>Glycerides of; </li></ul><ul><li>Ricinoleic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Oleic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Linoleic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Stearic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Uses: </li></ul><ul><li>Purgative </li></ul><ul><li>Emollient </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation of zinc and castor oil ointment </li></ul><ul><li>Sterilized castor oil as soothing agent in eye </li></ul><ul><li>Oily vehicle for eye drops </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Toxicity: </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive oral administration in larger doses </li></ul><ul><li>results in toxicity. </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms include; </li></ul><ul><li>Nausea </li></ul><ul><li>Colic </li></ul><ul><li>Vomiting </li></ul><ul><li>severe purgation </li></ul><ul><li>Electrolyte imbalance </li></ul>
  19. 19. LINSEED OIL <ul><li>Botanical origin: </li></ul><ul><li>Linum usitatissimum </li></ul><ul><li>Family: </li></ul><ul><li>Linaceae </li></ul><ul><li>Part used: </li></ul><ul><li>Seeds </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Constituents: </li></ul><ul><li>Glycerides of; </li></ul><ul><li>Isolinoleic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Linoleic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Stearic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Myristic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Palmitic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Uses: </li></ul><ul><li>In veterinary medicine as Purgative </li></ul>
  21. 21. OLIVE OIL <ul><li>Botanical origin: </li></ul><ul><li>Olea europaea </li></ul><ul><li>Family: </li></ul><ul><li>Oleaceae </li></ul><ul><li>Part used: </li></ul><ul><li>Ripe fruit </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Constituents: </li></ul><ul><li>Glycerides of; </li></ul><ul><li>Oleic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Linoleic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Stearic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Arachidic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Palmitic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Uses: </li></ul><ul><li>Laxative </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrient </li></ul><ul><li>Emollient </li></ul><ul><li>Demulcent </li></ul>
  23. 23. PEANUT OIL <ul><li>Botanical origin: </li></ul><ul><li>Arachis hypogaea </li></ul><ul><li>Family: </li></ul><ul><li>Leguminosae </li></ul><ul><li>Part used: </li></ul><ul><li>Seeds </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Constituents: </li></ul><ul><li>Glycerides of; </li></ul><ul><li>Oleic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Linoleic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Stearic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Arachidic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Palmitic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Behenic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Lignoceric acid </li></ul><ul><li>Uses: </li></ul><ul><li>Vehicles in emulsions, liniments, plasters, soap </li></ul><ul><li>Ink manufacture </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation of hydrogenated vegetable oil </li></ul>
  25. 25. CORN OIL <ul><li>Botanical origin: </li></ul><ul><li>Zea mays </li></ul><ul><li>Family: </li></ul><ul><li>Gramineae </li></ul><ul><li>Part used: </li></ul><ul><li>Embryo </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Constituents: </li></ul><ul><li>Glycerides of; </li></ul><ul><li>Oleic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Linoleic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Stearic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Arachidic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Palmitic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Myristic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Lignoceric acid </li></ul><ul><li>Uses: </li></ul><ul><li>Vehicles in pharmaceutical and cosmetic preparation </li></ul><ul><li>Solvent for injections </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrient </li></ul>
  27. 27. SWEET ALMOND OIL <ul><li>Botanical origin: </li></ul><ul><li>Prunus amygdalus </li></ul><ul><li>Family: </li></ul><ul><li>Rosaceae </li></ul><ul><li>Part used: </li></ul><ul><li>Seeds </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Constituents: </li></ul><ul><li>Glycerides of; </li></ul><ul><li>Oleic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Linoleic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Palmitic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Myristic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Uses: </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrient </li></ul><ul><li>Demulcent </li></ul><ul><li>Emollient </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation of cold creams, hair lotions and toilet articles </li></ul>
  29. 29. COCONUT OIL <ul><li>Botanical origin: </li></ul><ul><li>Cocos nucifera </li></ul><ul><li>Family: </li></ul><ul><li>Palmae </li></ul><ul><li>Part used: </li></ul><ul><li>Dried solid part of </li></ul><ul><li>endosperm </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Constituents: </li></ul><ul><li>Glycerides of; </li></ul><ul><li>Lauric acid </li></ul><ul><li>Myristic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Capric acid </li></ul><ul><li>Caprylied acid </li></ul><ul><li>Caproic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Oleic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Palmitic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Stearic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Uses: </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrient </li></ul><ul><li>Confectionaries </li></ul><ul><li>Cosmetics </li></ul><ul><li>Ointment base </li></ul>
  31. 31. MUSTARD OIL <ul><li>Botanical origin: </li></ul><ul><li>Brassica juncea </li></ul><ul><li>Family: </li></ul><ul><li>Cruciferae </li></ul><ul><li>Part used: </li></ul><ul><li>Seeds </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>Constituents: </li></ul><ul><li>Glycerides of; </li></ul><ul><li>Linoleic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Oleic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Erucic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Uses: </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrient </li></ul><ul><li>Rubefacient </li></ul><ul><li>In preparation of liniments </li></ul><ul><li>In massages </li></ul>
  33. 33. SESAME OIL <ul><li>Botanical origin: </li></ul><ul><li>Sesamum indicum </li></ul><ul><li>Family: </li></ul><ul><li>Pedaliaceae </li></ul><ul><li>Part used: </li></ul><ul><li>Seeds </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>Constituents: </li></ul><ul><li>Glycerides of; </li></ul><ul><li>Linoleic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Oleic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Stearic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Palmitic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Arachidic acid </li></ul><ul><li>And other components include; </li></ul><ul><li>Sesamin </li></ul><ul><li>sesamolin </li></ul><ul><li>Uses: </li></ul><ul><li>Solvent for intramuscular injection </li></ul><ul><li>Nutritive </li></ul><ul><li>Demulcent </li></ul><ul><li>Emollient </li></ul><ul><li>Laxative </li></ul><ul><li>Oily vehicle </li></ul>
  35. 35. SAFFLOWER OIL <ul><li>Botanical origin: </li></ul><ul><li>Carthamus tinctorius </li></ul><ul><li>Family: </li></ul><ul><li>Compositae </li></ul><ul><li>Part used: </li></ul><ul><li>Seeds </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>Constituents: </li></ul><ul><li>Glycerides of; </li></ul><ul><li>Palmitic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Stearic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Arachidic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Oleic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Linoleic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Linolenic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Uses: </li></ul><ul><li>Nutritive </li></ul>
  37. 37. SUNFLOWER OIL <ul><li>Botanical origin: </li></ul><ul><li>Helianthus annus </li></ul><ul><li>Family: </li></ul><ul><li>Compositae </li></ul><ul><li>Part used: </li></ul><ul><li>Seeds </li></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>Constituents: </li></ul><ul><li>Glycerides of; </li></ul><ul><li>Palmitic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Stearic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Arachidic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Oleic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Linoleic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Behenic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Uses: </li></ul><ul><li>Nutritive </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation of hydrogenated products </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation of paints, varnishes and soap </li></ul>
  39. 39. VOLATILE OILS VS FIXED OILS Low refractive index High refractive index Esters of fatty acid with glycerol Mixtures of oleoptenes and stereoptenes Can be saponified Cannot be saponified After evaporation, do leave spot Leave no spot after evaporation Obtained by extraction Obtained by distillation Don't get volatiles at room temperature Volatilize at room temperature Fixed oils Volatile oils
  40. 40. FATS VS FIXED OILS Contain unsaturated glycerides e.g. glyceryl oleate Contain saturated glycerides e.g. glyceryl stearate Liquid at room temperature Solid at room temperature Fixed oils Fats

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