Lecture 9 animation


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  • The papers summarized in this talk are the following 3. The first paper basically describes the basic 2D hand-drawn animation principles. The second paper is basically a review paper on animation research up to date and the last paper is on a software application called SLITHY that is used to create animated presentations.
  • Squash and stretch, timing/motion, anticipation, staging, follow through/overlapping action, straight ahead action/pose-to-pose action, slow in and out, arcs, exaggeration, secondary action, and appeal.
  • Drastic stretches = more pliable
    Volume remains constant.
  • Tiny characters have less inertia and would move quicker than a large character.
  • Important that only one idea is seen by the audience at a time.
    Too much leads to main idea being “upstaged” or overlooked.
  • Series of overlapping actions.
  • Used when scene requires more thought and poses and timing are important.
  • Early on, animation was drawing fairly even. But when poses of pose-to-pose animation became more expressive, animators wanted them to see them.
  • Obvious method but it.
    Does not mean distorting shapes or objects or making an action more violent or unrealistic.
    If one part exaggerated it runs the risk of standing out too much.
    If everything is exaggerated it runs the risk of unrealism.
  • Such as two arms doing the exact same thing.
  • Preparation
    Action proper
    Termination of action.
  • Use of squash and stretch, anticipation, follow through, overlapping action, and secondary action.
  • Graphics should be accurately perceived and appropriately conceived.
    Up to date: often too complex and too fast to be perceived accurately.
    But animations seem to be effective in real time reorientations in time and space.
  • Two benefits:
    Reduces the burden on memory and processing by off-loading.
    Makes underlying structures and processes transparent.
  • Graphic should correspond to the content and format of the concepts to be conveyed. For example, maps, building plans and graphs and charts.
  • Newton’s Law of motion (Rieber 1990) - shows kick as it starts and stops the ball in
  • No equivalent procedures to assess benefits possible benefits from animation. Which facilitates learning.
  • Some kinds of motions, observers can select the correct path from an animation, but still produce it incorrectly.
    If motion is conceived as in discrete steps, then it should be potrayed in discrete steps instead of being animated. IE. Operating a machine or assembling an object of some sort.
    Already shown in previous talks that interactivity can facilitate learning but no studies on interactivity of animation vs interactivity of static graphics.
  • Animation in PPT is really embellishments to static layouts
  • Allows creation of a set of behaviors that restrict how parts of a diagram can move and change.
    Both animations and models are objects that map a set of input parameters onto a set of output graphical primitives. Advantage: we can construct animations in smaller logical units and combine them to make slides.
    Want the ability to nest models within each other to any degree of depth: Models and animations can be much more abstract in presentations, and often makes sense for them to be included in one another. Imagine a block diagram of a system, each block may contain a thumbnail animation to suggest to the audience the task performed inside the box. Small animations will also contain their own models as well.
  • Parameterization lets us animate the diagram by manipulating a single abstract “amount of pull” parameter, rather than managing all the individual graphical elements individually.
  • 2. System also has a number of built-in objects to display things like background fills, text boxes, still images, and bulleted lists.
  • Squash and stretch and exaggeration : Found it distracting when the goal is to inform. That is people in the audience are more interested in the animation than the presenter himself.
    Such as cross-fading - getting information on and off the screen. Sudden cuts create uncertainty and tension.
    Using subtle transitions to increase impact of showy effects when they are used.
    Use panning and zooming to increase area. Figure that slides off the same slide remains more “visible” than one that simply blinks out of existence.
    Use the screen as a magnifying glass for examining figures of a variety of scales.
  • 6. Separating detail into layers which become visible when required such as simple animated transitions such as quick fade-in or a small sliding motion can provide a suble and effective cue for differentiating the layers of information.
    Slow with pauses so animations match the speakers words.
    Presenter describes what is happening - talking about something different creates confusion.
    Dynamics: refers to change over time in a real-world process
    Transitions: animations used to highlight and draw attention and to move the talk from one topic to the next.
  • Lecture 9 animation

    1. 1. Animation Principles Prepared by Razia Nisar Noorani
    2. 2. Outline 1. Principles of Traditional Animation Applied to Computer Animation (Lasseter, 1987) 2. Animation: Can it facilitate? (Tversky and Morrison, 2002) 3. On Creating Animated Presentations (Zongker and Salesin, 2003)
    3. 3. Principles of Animation • Animation is possible because of a a biological phenomenon known as persistence of vision And The psychological phenomenon called phi . • An object seen by the human eye remains chemically mapped on the eye’s retina for a brief time after viewing. • Combined with the human mind’s need to conceptually complete a perceived action. • This makes it possible for a series of images that are changed very slightly and very rapidly, one after the other, seem like continuous motion .
    4. 4. What is Animation? • 'To animate' literally means to give life to. • Animating is moving something that cannot move on it's own. • Animation adds to graphics the dimensions of time, which tremendously increase the potential of transmitting the desired information. • In order to animate something the animator has to be able to specify directly or indirectly how the 'thing' has to move through time and space.
    5. 5. 2-D Animation Two types: Cel animation Path animation
    6. 6. Cel Animation Made famous by Disney 24 frames per second therefore a minute may require as many as 1,440 separate frames. Cel animation: is based on changes that occur from one frame to the next. Cel stands for celluloid which is a clear sheet with images drawn on them. The celluloid images are place on a background that is usually stationary.
    7. 7. Path Animation Moves an object along a predetermined path on the screen The path can be a straight line or have a number of curves. Starts with keyframes (the first and last frame of an action). The series of frames in between the keyframes are drawn in a process called tweening. Tweening requires calculating the number of frames between keyframes and the path the action takes, and then actually takes, and then sketches a series of progressively different outlines.
    8. 8. Computer Animation Typically employes the same logic and procedural concepts as cell animation You can usually set your own frame rate At 15 frames a second the animation may appear jerky and slow 2-D animation can be an acceptable alternative to the expense of creating video
    9. 9. 3-D Animation 3-D Animation involves three steps: modeling, animation, and rendering Modeling – the process of creating objects and scenes Animation – the process of defining the object’s motion Rendering – the final step in creating 3-D animation. Morphing is the process of blending two images into a series of images Warping allows you to distort a single image Virtual reality (VR) creates an environment that surrounds the user so that they become part of
    10. 10. Animation Techniques • As is evident from the history, animators have used and invented a variety of different animation techniques. Traditionally most of the animation was done by hand. • All the frames in an animation had to be drawn by hand. Since each second of animation requires 24 frames (film), the amount of work required to create even the shortest of movies, can be tremendous.
    11. 11. Animation Techniques • Key Frames • In this technique a storyboard is laid out and then the artists draw the major frames of the • animation. These major frames are in which a lot of changes take place. They are the key • points of animation. Later a bunch of artists draw in the frames in between. • This technique is, of course, very time and effort intensive to animate.
    12. 12. Animation Techniques • Rotascoping: • Rotascoping is a technique where images are copied from a moving video into an animation. • The animator draws the motion and shape of the object by referring to the video as opposed to imagining in his head. • With the help of the rotascoping one can animate some complex scenes that would be hard to visualize otherwise. • The disadvantage is that one will have to hunt for the exact video that one wants to animate.
    13. 13. Animation Techniques • Motion Capture • Another technique is Motion Capture, in which magnetic or vision-based sensors record the actions of a human or animal object in three dimensions. • A computer then uses these data to animate the object. • This technology has enabled a number of famous athletes to supply the actions for characters in sports video games. • Motion capture is pretty popular with the animators mainly because some of the commonplace human actions can be captured with relative ease. • However, there can be serious discrepancies between the shapes or dimensions of the subject and the graphical character and this may lead to problems of exact execution.
    14. 14. Animation Techniques • Simulation: • Unlike key framing and motion picture, simulation uses the laws of physics to generate • motion of figures and other objects. Virtual humans are usually represented as a collection of rigid body parts.
    15. 15. Overview: Traditional Animation • Early 2D Animation: Used traditional techniques • Early 3D Animation: Neglected traditional techniques.
    16. 16. 11 Fundamental principles of traditional animation techniques • Understanding the 11 Fundamental principles of traditional animation techniques is essential to producing good computer animation.
    17. 17. 1. Squash and Stretch • Teaches basic mechanics of animation. • Defines rigidity of material. • Important in facial animation.
    18. 18. Squash and Stretch Cont. • Can relieve the disturbing effect of strobing.
    19. 19. 2. Timing and Motion • Gives meaning to movement. • Proper timing is critical to making ideas readable. Examples: 1. Timing: tiny characters move quicker than larger ones. 2. Motion: can define weights of objects.
    20. 20. 3. Anticipation Preparation for an action Example: Goofy prepares to hit a baseball.
    21. 21. 4. Staging A clear presentation of an idea. Some Techniques: 1. Use motion in a still scene or use of static movement in a busy scene. 2. Use of silhouettes (to the side)
    22. 22. 5. Follow Through and Overlapping Action 1. Follow Through Termination part of an action. 2. Overlapping Action Starting a second action before the first has completed. Example: after throwing a ball Example: Luxo Jr.’s hop with overlapping action on chord.
    23. 23. 6. Straight Ahead Action and Pose-to-Pose Action 1. Straight Ahead Animator start from first drawing in the scene and draw all subsequent frames until the end of scene. 2. Pose-to-Pose Animator plans actions, draws a sequence of poses, in between frames etc.
    24. 24. 7. Slow in and Out Spacing of inbetween frames to achieve subtlety of timing and movement. 1. 3d keyframe comp. Systems uses spline interpolation to control the path of an object. 2. Has tendency to overshoot at extremes (small # of frames).
    25. 25. 8. Arcs • Visual path of action for natural movement. • Makes animation much smoother and less stiff than a straight line.
    26. 26. 9. Exaggeration • Making it noticeable the essence of an idea via the design and the action. • Needs to be used carefully. Example: Luxo Jr. made smaller to give idea of a child.
    27. 27. 10. Secondary Action • Action that results directly from another action. • Used to increase the complexity and interest of a scene. Example: Body movement is the primary action, facial expression is the secondary action
    28. 28. 11. Appeal • Refers to what an audience would like to see. • Character cannot be too simple (boring) or too complex. Examples: Avoid mirror symmetry, assymmetry is interesting.
    29. 29. What techniques used for Wally B.?
    30. 30. What do you think Wally B’s going to do?
    31. 31. The Action: Zooooooooooommmm!
    32. 32. Termination: Poof! He’s gone!
    33. 33. Role of Personality • Animator’s first goal is to entertain. • Success of animation lies in the personality of the characters. Conclusion Hardware/Software are simply not enough, these principles are just as important tools too.
    34. 34. Critique PROs 1. Clear and concepts explained well with pictures and examples. CONs 1. Need more examples on “bad animation” 2. What really makes good vs bad animation? Need to make a better one on one comparison. 3. Personality section: is it necessary?
    35. 35. Outline 1. Principles of Traditional Animation Applied to Computer Animation. 2. Animation: Can it facilitate? 3. On Creating Animated Presentations
    36. 36. Overview • Graphics have many advantages. • What makes graphics effective ? 1. Congruence Principle 2. Apprehension Principle • Can Animation facilitate?
    37. 37. Advantage Graphics 1. Help in communication. 2. May save words by showing things that would otherwise need many. 3. Externalize internal knowledge I. Reduces the burden on memory and processing by off- loading. II. Makes underlying structures and processes transparent. 4. Used carefully can facilitate comprehension, learning, memory, communication and inference Graphics are not always effective. (text vs graphics)
    38. 38. Criteria 1: Congruence Principle The structure and content of the external representation should correspond to the desired structure and content of the internal representation.
    39. 39. Animation • By Congruence Principle: should be natural way for conveying concepts of change, just as space in graphics is a natural for conveying actual space. • Appear to be effective for expressing processes ie. Weather patterns, circuit diagrams, or circulatory systems etc. • Compelling and attractive
    40. 40. Evaluating Animation • Needs to be compared to graphics that do not change with time, as it is change with time that animation adds. • How well does animation teach complex systems: mechanical, biological, physical, and operational.
    41. 41. Selective Review of Research on Animation
    42. 42. Incomparable Content in Static and Animated Graphics Examples: 1. Circulatory system (Large et al., 1996) - animated had blood pathways 2. Electronic Circuit (Park and Gittelman 1992) - animated showed fine structure. 3. Pythagorean theorem (Thompson and Riding, 1990) - paper graphic equivalent to discrete animation, but not equivalent to continuous animation.
    43. 43. Incomparable Procedures In Static and Animated Graphics. 1. Interactivity versus Animation 2. Prediction versus Animation Why the confusion? • Success of animation due to advantages of extra information conveyed, rather than animation of the information. • Animation is attractive and exciting.
    44. 44. Criteria 2: Apprehension Principle The structure and content of the external representation should be readily and accurately perceived and comprehended.
    45. 45. Why Do Animations Fail? 1. Animations may be hard to perceive. 2. Animations may be comprehended discretely. 3. Not universally preferred and often require expertise for understanding.
    46. 46. Conclusions and Implications 1. Many apparent successes turn out not to be successes. 2. Congruence and Apprehension Principles. 3. Interactivity may be key to overcome animations’ drawbacks. 4. Animation must be used with care.
    47. 47. Crtitique PROs 1. Good overview of where animation research is. 2. Clearly written. 3. Well supported claims. CONs 1. No figures! 2. Too many examples were vaguely explained.
    48. 48. Outline 1. Principles of Traditional Animation Applied to Computer Animation. 2. Animation: Can it facilitate? 3. On Creating Animated Presentations
    49. 49. Overview 1. Microsoft estimates ~30 million ppt presentations are made everyday 2. Animation could improve them. 3. PPT is essentially static in nature. 4. Examine how meaningful animations can be created to improve live presentations.
    50. 50. Authoring Principles for Animations for Presentations 1. Use parameterization at all levels of the system. 2. Treat animations as models - animations are treated as parameterized models that have a single parameter: time. 3. Build slides hierarchically
    51. 51. Example of Parameterization Parameterization lets us animate the diagram by manipulating a single abstract “amount of pull” parameter, rather than managing all the individual graphical elements individually.
    52. 52. 1. Implemented as a set of libraries in Python. 2. Users have access to complete, general-purpose programming language. 3. A collection of drawing objects.
    53. 53. Three Major Drawing Objects 1. Parameterized diagrams - functions that draw objects and are redrawn each time it is executed. 2. Animation Objects - One scalar parameter and provides mapping to a set of other drawing objects to be invoked. 3. Interactive Objects - same as animated objects except can be edited while being played.
    54. 54. Animation Principles for Presentations. 1. Make all movement meaningful 2. Avoid instantaneous changes 3. Reinforce structure with transitions 4. Create a large virtual canvas 5. Smoothly expand and compress detail
    55. 55. Animation Principles for Presentations cont. 6. Manage complexity through overlays • Do one thing at a time. • Reinforce animation with narration. • Distinguish dynamics from transitions.
    56. 56. Comparing to Presentation Software PowerPoint vs Slithy 1. WYSIWG (what you see is what you get) 2. Difficult to do complex animations :resort to videos. 3. Built with animations in mind. 4. Script to describe animation. CounterPoint vs Slithy Focused on using animated navigation between slides to convey the structure of the presentation.
    57. 57. Comparing to Animation Software 1. Menv 2. Algorithm animation 3. Alice 4. Flash Overall, SLITHY provides much more flexibility and ease for animations for presentations.
    58. 58. Future Work and Conclusion 1. Still need to find an animated presentation tool that is both very general and easy to use. 2. Presented ideas provide useful steps at creating and experiencing more informative and exciting presentations.
    59. 59. Critique PROs 1. Presents a somewhat novel problem in today’s presentations. 2. Interesting views on what makes a good animation in presentations. 3. Good implementation details. CONs 1. Presented Animation Principles are not supported. 2. Evaluation is based on personal experience, there is no user-case studies. 3. Software requires an expert level of a a user.