Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Emotion   Chapter 11            ©1999 Prentice Hall
Emotion   Defining Emotion.   Elements of Emotion 1: The Body.   Elements of Emotion 2: The Mind.   Elements of Emotio...
Emotion   A state of arousal involving facial and body    changes, brain activation, cognitive    appraisals, subjective ...
Elements of Emotion 1: The Body   Primary and secondary emotions.   The face of emotion.   The brain and emotion.   Ho...
Elements of Emotion 1: The Body   Primary emotions       Emotions considered to be universal and biologically        bas...
Universal Expressions of Emotion   Facial expressions for primary emotions are    universal.   Even members of remote cu...
The Face of Anger   Anger is universally    recognized by    geometric patterns on    the face   In each pair, the left ...
Facial Expressions in Social Context    Across and within cultures, agreement often     varies on which emotion a particu...
The Brain and Emotion   The amygdala.        Responsible for assessing threat.        Damage to the amygdala results in...
Hormones and Emotion   When experiencing an intense emotion, 2    hormones are released.       Epinephrine       Norepi...
The Autonomic Nervous System           ©1999 Prentice Hall
Detecting Emotions: Does the Body Lie?    Polygraph testing     relies on autonomic     nervous system arousal.    Typic...
Polygraph Tests             ©1999 Prentice Hall
Polygraph Tests   Empirical support is weak    and conflicting.                        ©1999 Prentice Hall
Polygraph Tests   Empirical support is weak    and conflicting.   Test is inadmissible in most    courts.               ...
Polygraph Tests   Empirical support is weak    and conflicting.   Test is inadmissible in most    courts.   It is illeg...
Polygraph Tests   Empirical support is weak    and conflicting.   Test is inadmissible in most    courts.   It is illeg...
Elements of Emotion 2: The Mind    How thoughts create emotions.        The two factor theory of emotion.        Attrib...
Two-factor Theory of Emotion   Physiological arousal       Sweaty palms       Increased heart rate       rapid breathi...
Attributions and Emotions   Perceptions and attributions are involved in    emotions.   How one reacts to an event depen...
Elements of Emotion 3: TheCulture   Culture and emotional variation.   The rules of emotional regulation.       Display...
Culture and Emotional Variation   Culture determines what people feel angry, sad,    lonely, happy, ashamed or disgusted ...
The Rules of Emotional Regulation   Display Rules       When, where, and how emotions are to be expressed        or when...
Putting it all together: Emotionand Gender   Physiology and intensity.   Sensitivity to other people’s emotions.   Cogn...
   Physiology and intensity       Women recall emotional events more        intensely and vividly than do men.       Me...
Possible reasons for differencesin physiology and intensity.   Males autonomic nervous system is more reactive    than fe...
Sensitivity to Other People’s Emotions    Factors which influence one’s ability to     “read” emotional signals:        ...
Cognitions.   Men and women appear to differ in the    types of every day events that provoke their    anger.   Women be...
Expressiveness   In North America women:       Smile more than men.       Gaze at listeners more.       Have more emot...
Factors Influencing EmotionalExpressiveness   Gender roles.   Cultural norms.   The specific situation.                ...
Emotion Work and Gender.   Women work hard at appearing warm,    happy and making sure others are happy.   Men work hard...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Emotions

3,061 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Education
  • Be the first to comment

Emotions

  1. 1. Emotion Chapter 11 ©1999 Prentice Hall
  2. 2. Emotion Defining Emotion. Elements of Emotion 1: The Body. Elements of Emotion 2: The Mind. Elements of Emotion 3: The Culture. Putting the Elements together: Emotion and Gender. ©1999 Prentice Hall
  3. 3. Emotion A state of arousal involving facial and body changes, brain activation, cognitive appraisals, subjective feelings, and tendencies toward action, all shaped by cultural rules. ©1999 Prentice Hall
  4. 4. Elements of Emotion 1: The Body Primary and secondary emotions. The face of emotion. The brain and emotion. Hormones and emotion. Detecting emotions, Does the body lie? ©1999 Prentice Hall
  5. 5. Elements of Emotion 1: The Body Primary emotions  Emotions considered to be universal and biologically based. They generally include fear, anger, sadness, joy, surprise, disgust, and contempt. Secondary emotion  Emotions that develop with cognitive maturity and vary across individuals and cultures. Three biological areas of emotion are  facial expressions,  brain regions and circuits, and  autonomic nervous system. ©1999 Prentice Hall
  6. 6. Universal Expressions of Emotion Facial expressions for primary emotions are universal. Even members of remote cultures can recognize facial expressions in people who are foreign to them. Facial feedback.  Process by which the facial muscles send messages to the brain about the basic emotion being expressed. Infants are able to read parental expressions. Facial expression can generate same expressions in others, creating mood contagion. ©1999 Prentice Hall
  7. 7. The Face of Anger Anger is universally recognized by geometric patterns on the face In each pair, the left form seems angrier than the right form ©1999 Prentice Hall
  8. 8. Facial Expressions in Social Context  Across and within cultures, agreement often varies on which emotion a particular facial expression is revealing.  People don’t usually express their emotion in facial expressions unless others are around.  Facial expressions convey different meanings depending on their circumstances.  People often use facial expressions to lie about their feelings as well as to express them. ©1999 Prentice Hall
  9. 9. The Brain and Emotion The amygdala.  Responsible for assessing threat.  Damage to the amygdala results in abnormality to process fear. Left prefrontal cortex  Involved in motivation to approach others.  Damage to this area results in loss of joy. Right prefrontal cortex  Involved in withdrawal and escape.  Damage to the area results in excessive mania and euphoria. ©1999 Prentice Hall
  10. 10. Hormones and Emotion When experiencing an intense emotion, 2 hormones are released.  Epinephrine  Norepinephrine Results in increased alertness and arousal. At high levels, it can create the sensation of being out of control emotionally. ©1999 Prentice Hall
  11. 11. The Autonomic Nervous System ©1999 Prentice Hall
  12. 12. Detecting Emotions: Does the Body Lie?  Polygraph testing relies on autonomic nervous system arousal.  Typical measures:  Galvanic Skin Response  Pulse, blood pressure  Breathing  Fidgeting ©1999 Prentice Hall
  13. 13. Polygraph Tests ©1999 Prentice Hall
  14. 14. Polygraph Tests Empirical support is weak and conflicting. ©1999 Prentice Hall
  15. 15. Polygraph Tests Empirical support is weak and conflicting. Test is inadmissible in most courts. ©1999 Prentice Hall
  16. 16. Polygraph Tests Empirical support is weak and conflicting. Test is inadmissible in most courts. It is illegal to use for most job screening. ©1999 Prentice Hall
  17. 17. Polygraph Tests Empirical support is weak and conflicting. Test is inadmissible in most courts. It is illegal to use for most job screening. Many government agencies continue to use for screening. ©1999 Prentice Hall
  18. 18. Elements of Emotion 2: The Mind  How thoughts create emotions.  The two factor theory of emotion.  Attributions and emotions. ©1999 Prentice Hall
  19. 19. Two-factor Theory of Emotion Physiological arousal  Sweaty palms  Increased heart rate  rapid breathing Cognitive Label  Attribute source of arousal to a cause To have an emotion, both factors are required ©1999 Prentice Hall
  20. 20. Attributions and Emotions Perceptions and attributions are involved in emotions. How one reacts to an event depends on how he or she explains it.  For example, how one reacts to being ignored or winning the silver instead of the gold medal. Philosophy of life is also influential. ©1999 Prentice Hall
  21. 21. Elements of Emotion 3: TheCulture Culture and emotional variation. The rules of emotional regulation.  Display rules.  Body language.  Emotion work. ©1999 Prentice Hall
  22. 22. Culture and Emotional Variation Culture determines what people feel angry, sad, lonely, happy, ashamed or disgusted about. Some cultures have words for specific emotions unknown to other cultures.  Ex. Schadenfreude Some cultures don’t have words for emotions that seem universal to others.  Tahitian and sadness Differences in secondary emotions appear to be reflected in differences in languages. ©1999 Prentice Hall
  23. 23. The Rules of Emotional Regulation Display Rules  When, where, and how emotions are to be expressed or when they should be squelched. Body Language  The nonverbal signals of body movement, posture and gaze that people constantly express. Emotion Work.  Acting out an emotion we do not feel or trying to create the right emotion for the occasion. ©1999 Prentice Hall
  24. 24. Putting it all together: Emotionand Gender Physiology and intensity. Sensitivity to other people’s emotions. Cognitions. Expressiveness.  Factors which affect expressiveness. Emotion work. ©1999 Prentice Hall
  25. 25.  Physiology and intensity  Women recall emotional events more intensely and vividly than do men.  Men experience experience emotional events more intensely than do women.  Conflict is physiologically more upsetting for men than women. ©1999 Prentice Hall
  26. 26. Possible reasons for differencesin physiology and intensity. Males autonomic nervous system is more reactive than females. Men are more likely to rehearse angry thoughts which maintains anger. Women are more likely to ruminate which maintains depression. ©1999 Prentice Hall
  27. 27. Sensitivity to Other People’s Emotions  Factors which influence one’s ability to “read” emotional signals:  The sex of the sender and receiver.  How well the sender and receiver know each other.  How expressive the sender is.  Who has the power.  Stereotypes and expectations. ©1999 Prentice Hall
  28. 28. Cognitions. Men and women appear to differ in the types of every day events that provoke their anger. Women become angry over issues related to their partners disregard. Men become angry over damage to property or problems with strangers. ©1999 Prentice Hall
  29. 29. Expressiveness In North America women:  Smile more than men.  Gaze at listeners more.  Have more emotionally expressive faces.  Use more expressive body movements.  Touch others more.  Acknowledge weakness and emotions more. Compare to women, men only express anger to strangers more. ©1999 Prentice Hall
  30. 30. Factors Influencing EmotionalExpressiveness Gender roles. Cultural norms. The specific situation. ©1999 Prentice Hall
  31. 31. Emotion Work and Gender. Women work hard at appearing warm, happy and making sure others are happy. Men work hard at persuading others they are stern, aggressive and unemotional. Why?  Gender roles and status. ©1999 Prentice Hall

×