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Crusades overview&results


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Crusades overview&results

  1. 1. The Crusades A Brief Look
  2. 2. The Crusades • A series of military campaigns from the 1090s to the 1400s by a variety of European military groups into parts of the Byzantine Empire and Muslim controlled Middle East.
  3. 3. Why did the CRUSADES begin? Read Pope Urban II’s speech – List in your notebook the: “The top 5 reasons” that Christians should go on a crusade.
  4. 4. Categorize your five reasons. What are the political, economic, social, and religious reasons he gives?
  5. 5. Events that may have led to the Crusades A Christian Church in Jerusalem was destroyed by the “Caliph” of the region. Pilgrim routes (to the Holy Land) were closed for a period of time. The Byzantine Empire was losing territory to Islamic Turks; Byzantine leaders requested assistance from other Christian kingdoms.
  6. 6. And so they fought . . .
  7. 7. THE CRUSADES • The Islamic groups holding the regions of the Middle East were not unified at the time and were “caught off guard” by these invasions. • Each crusade was different—rarely unified. • Massacres were committed by Muslim and Christian armies during the wars.
  8. 8. Crusader Kingdoms Eventually, European armies took and held regions in the Middle East for nearly a century.
  9. 9. RESULTS of the CRUSADES On the Byzantine Empire • Weakening of the Empire due to the pillaging of Constantinople and taking of Byzantine lands. • Severed political and religious connections to Western Europe.
  10. 10. Siege of Constantinople
  11. 11. RESULTS of the CRUSADES On western Europe: • Nationalism within Europe • Increased desire for “eastern” goods and increased trade connections with the Islamic markets.
  12. 12. Late Medieval Trade Routes
  13. 13. RESULTS of the CRUSADES On western Europe: • Exposure to Islamic learning, innovation, and technological advancements
  14. 14. RESULTS of the CRUSADES On the Islamic groups of the Middle East • Very little change in politics or culture • The Islamic Leader, Saladin, helped unify Muslim forces and reconquered most of the Middle East and Asia Minor by the 1200s. • Though crusades continued, Muslims held the “Holy Land”