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  1. 1. We know what a newspaper is, what goes into a newspaper and the whole history of newspapers. Today we’re going to look at WHO newspapers are for! You have 90 seconds to silently note down any words/phrases Okay, here are the ones you are going to use you can think of that will help today. (The boxed ones are THE BARE us today. ESSENTIAL ones) Target Socio-economic group audience audience demographic Segmentation / segment
  2. 2. demographic groups •A Top management, bankers, lawyers, doctors and other professionals. •B Middle management, teachers, many 'creative’s e.g. graphic designers etc. •C1 Office supervisors, junior managers, nurses, specialist clerical staff etc. •C2 Skilled workers, tradespersons (white collar). •D Semi-skilled and unskilled manual workers (blue collar). •E Unemployed, students, pensioners, casual workers.
  3. 3. How does an Audience Engage? AUDIENCE ENGAGEMENT - This describes how an audience interacts with a media text. Different people react in different ways to the same text. AUDIENCE EXPECTATIONS - These are the advance ideas an audience may have about a text. This particularly applies to genre pieces. Don't forget that producers often play with or deliberately shatter audience expectations. AUDIENCE FOREKNOWLEDGE - This is the definite information (rather than the vague expectations) which an audience brings to a media product. AUDIENCE IDENTIFICATION - This is the way in which audiences feel themselves connected to a particular media text, in that they feel it directly expresses their attitude or lifestyle. AUDIENCE PLACEMENT - This is the range of strategies media producers use to directly target a particular audience and make them feel that the media text is specially 'for them’. AUDIENCE RESEARCH - Measuring an audience is very important to all media institutions. Research is done at all stages of production of a media text, and, once produced, audience will be continually monitored.
  4. 4. What Can You Remember? Reception Hypodermic Theory Needle Theory Use’s and Gratifications Theory
  5. 5. Use’s and Gratifications Theory •Diversion – Escape from everyday problems and routine. •Personal Relationships – Using the media for emotional and other interaction. •Personal Identify – Finding yourself reflected in texts. •Surveillance – Information which could be useful for living.
  6. 6. Reception •Dominant or Preferred Reading – Theory audience fully accepts the texts codes. •Negotiated Reading – the audience partly shares the text’s codes, but sometimes modifies it in a way that reflects their own position, experiences and interests. •Oppositional Reading – The audience, whose social situation places them in a directly oppositional relation, understands the preferred reading but rejects it and offers an alternative.
  7. 7. There are two ways of looking at an audience. From the inside and from the outside! TODAY, however, we’re also interested in a THIRD perspective – the view from behind the stage/camera/publishers. The point of view of those who are organising and funding everything!
  8. 8. So... It’s important to remember that it’s a little bit more complicated than perhaps we’ve previously thought! INSTITUTION TARGET AUDIENCE PRODUCERS
  9. 9. £$£$£$£$£$£$£$$£$£$£$£$£$£$£$£$£$£££$£$£$£$ WHY DO PEOPLE GET INVOLVED IN MAKING NEWSPAPERS? £$£$£$£$£$£$£$$£$£$£$£$£$£$£$£$£$£££$£$£$£$ Here is one such man! Billionaire Rupert Murdoch, owner of News International!
  10. 10. Amongst other papers around the world, Rupert owns TWO of the most popular papers in the UK! Below is an outline of their sales and their target demographic. Circulation – about 600,000 Circulation – about 3,000,000 Cost - £1 Cost – 30p Pages – about 80 – 100 Pages – about 34 - 45 Covers – national, international and Covers – sports, celebrity, national financial news, sport, the arts, etc... news, major international events. Readers tend to be: Readers tend to be: •Aged 30 and over (mostly male) •Aged between 18 and 80 •Educated to at least A Level, most •Male and female often university level. •Earning in the middle 30% of the •Earning in the top 25% of the country. country. •Ambitious, intellectual, likes to keep •Like to be entertained, enjoy up to date, likes to think of themselves personality, interested in popular as cultured. culture, strong opinions.
  11. 11. WHAT THE CLASS CAME UP WITH: WHAT THE COMPUTER CAME UP WITH: WHY WOULD HE •Because they are aimed at different OWN TWO audiences (very few people would be torn between buying both of them). NEWSPAPERS •Because the country is too diverse to make one newspaper that AND BE IN everyone will like! COMPETITION •Because competition is healthy. WITH HIMSELF? •Because if he owns the means of (In small groups consider some of the potential reasons for this – there is more than ONE)! making one paper he might as well make two (or more). •Because people want to speak to different groups of people – advertisers for example.
  12. 12. From the point of view of the writers, editors, photographers... (those who are “on the stage”): What is “audience” AUDIENCE according to these three groups? From the point of view of the INSTITUTION (the people who run the company that makes the newspaper):
  13. 13. So – to prove all of this, answer this question: WHY DO PEOPLE MAKE NEWSPAPERS AIMED AT THE POPULAR PRESS MARKET? The Sun’s primary target group is young adults (male & female) in the 18 – 45 years age bracket and in the B and C social economic class (teachers and managers through to plumbers, plasterers, carpenters). A mixture of singles and married people with the emphasis on families. This is the biggest social group in the UK.