Did Rome allow itsconquered peoplereligious freedom? 70 AD: Jewish revolt in Jerusalem crushed. Why was Rome worried about Christianity?
Blamed Christians for political troubles Emperor Nero blamed Christians for a fire Many Christians imprisoned or killed Who were the martyrs?
200s: Millions of Christians in Roman Empire Why was Christianity popular?
Military leader 306: Became Emperor Persecuted Christians
During battle, saw a Cross in the skywith the words “In this sign you willconquer.” Had troops paint the symbol onhelmets & shields Edict of Milan: Decreed Christianityone of the empire’s legal religions Built churches and made Sunday aholy day of rest By 380, Christianity is made theofficial religion of Rome
Catholic means “universal” First Bishop of Rome (Pope): apostle Peter Christianity changed from a small sect into apowerful and wealthy religion
100s AD: Empire stops expanding How did this hurt the economy? Overuse of land led to a decline in agriculture Reliance on slaves prevented new techniques frombeing developed Food shortages caused unrest
Due to constant fightingwith nomadic peoples,Rome needed largerarmies Hired mercenaries with noloyalty to Rome Soldiers became loyal totheir commanders and togold.
Size of the empire made it difficult to govern. Government officials corrupt Less Romans educated A loss of the sense of civic duty
284: comes to power Restored order Placed troops at empire’sborder Kept bread prices low Divided empire in half,keeping eastern half forhimself. Why?
330: Constantine moves capital from Rome to Byzantium
Late 300s: Nomadic Germanictribes begin pushing into Rome Were these groups “Barbarians”? Why did these groups make thismove? 476: City of Rome conquered byGermanic tribes
Gaul conquered by Clovisand a Frankish kingdomestablished What happened after theWestern Empire collapsed?
Eastern Empire Lasts 1,000 years longer than the Western Empire. Named after the city of Byzantium (later renamedConstantinople) Those who lived here spoke Greek, but consideredthemselves Romans Byzantine students studied Latin, Greek, andRoman literature and history.
Ruled 527-564 Armies reconquered Italy,northern Africa & southerncoast of Spain Rebuilt Constantinople Built schools, hospitals, lawcourts Built Hagia Sophia, achurch that is today aMosque. Justinian Code: legal codebased on Roman Law
Who was in charge of theChurch? East & West clashed over whowas the final authority onreligious matters 1054: The Great Schism West: Roman Catholic Church East: Easter Orthodox Church
Pope has great influence over western kingsand emperors Byzantine Emperor controlled the Patriarch(leader of the Eastern Church) and the Church
Unrest after Justinian’s death Which groups attacked the Byzantine Empire? 1350: Empire severely shrunk 1453: Turks conquered Constantinople http://www.history.com/topics/ancient-history/videos#the-fall-of-rome
Mosaic: picture made byup by small pieces ofglass, stone, or tile
Romans adopted the epicpoem from Greece Virgil’s Aeneid about heroof the Trojan War Aeneas. Emperor Marcus Aureliusexplained the philosophy ofStoicism in Meditations
Latin evolved into the Romance Languages Spanish, French, Portuguese, Italian, Romanian
Arches, vaults, domes Roman developmentsmade it possible tobuild larger, tallerbuildings Developed concrete
Roman law is at the heart of many Europeancountries & the US Equal treatment under the law Innocent until proven guilty Legislative assemblies modeled on the Senate