Large, complex administrative structure that handles theeveryday business of an organizationOrganizations with a bureaucracy Federal Government US Army McDonald’s Catholic Church Bishop WalshWHAT IS A BUREAUCRACY?
Hierarchical Structure Chain of command; pyramid structure Pro: Con:Job Specialization Each member has certain defined duties & responsibilities Pro: Con:Formalized Rules Established set of regulations Pro: Con:FEATURES OF A BUREAUCRACY
Agencies, people & procedures that help the government carryout its policies Almost all in the Executive Branch Constitution gives the President broad powers to establish anadministration to carry out his or her policiesExecutive Office of the PresidentCabinet DepartmentsIndependent AgenciesTHE FEDERAL BUREAUCRACY
Department -- Cabinet-levelAgencies & Administrations Usually single-administrators; near Cabinet-level EPA; NASACommissions Regulate business FCC; SECCorporations or Authorities Business-like activities FDIC; TVAWHAT’S IN A NAME?
Until 1857, presidents paid support staff out of pocketEOP Established 1939 Reorganized in every administrationWhite House OfficeNational Security CouncilOMBCouncil of Economic AdvisersEXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT
Rule of propinquity: closer your office to the Oval, the moreinfluence you have. West Wing > East Wing > Old Executive Office BuildingWHITE HOUSE OFFICE
Chief of Staff Top Aide Directs White HouseoperationsPress Secretary Gives daily press briefings;voice of administrationWhite House Counsel (legaladviser)Communications DirectorDeputy COSOffice of Legislative AffairsWHO’S IN THE WEST WING?
Meets at the Presidents call to assist in most foreign matters Members: VP, Sec of State & Defense, CIA Director, chairmanof Join Chiefs of Staff National Security Adviser heads the staff of policy experts Advisory bodyNATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL
Large & influential Prepares the federal budget submitted by the President Budget: detailed list of receipts (money in) and expenditures(money out) during a fiscal year (Oct 1 – Sept 30) Federal agencies submit budget proposals to the OMB OMB revises & fits the requests into the President’s plan Oversees the funds appropriated by Congress Helps president prepare executive orders & veto messagesOFFICE OF MANAGEMENT & BUDGET
Three members; confirmed by Senate Chief economic advisers to the President Helps prepare Annual Economic Report to CongressCOUNCIL OF ECONOMIC ADVISERS
15 Cabinet Departments Not mentioned in Constitution 1789: State, Treasury & War Each department has its own policy area Each headed by a secretary (except DOJ) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xxSvi6JCCfkEXECUTIVE DEPARTMENTS
At one time, the main advisors to the president Today, most time spent administering respective departmentTwo Goals Serve the President Promote & protect his or her department Subject to Senate confirmation Oldest: Biggest: Largest Budget: Newest:WHAT DOES THE CABINET DO?
“Cabinet” = head of 15 departments + other officers atpresident’s discretion OMB Director VP Chief of Staff US Trade Rep EPA US Ambassador to the UNCABINET-LEVEL OFFICERS
Party of the President Played a role in the campaign Regional Balance – Where should the Sec. of Interior comefrom? First Woman: First African-American: First Hispanic: First Female Sec. of State: First Female Attorney General:WHO GETS APPOINTED?
Bill Clinton: Cabinet played a key role JFK: Cabinet meetings a “waste of time” Lincoln: “Seven nays, one aye: the ayes have it.” Taft: “The Cabinet is a mere creation of the President’s will…Itexists only by custom.” Jackson: Kitchen Cabinet FDR: Brain Trust Truman: Cronies Most presidents hold regular cabinet meetings Often media eventsPRESIDENTS ON THE CABINET
None until 1880s Today, nearly 150 Exist outside the Cabinet departments NOT independent of the presidentIndependent Executive AgenciesIndependent Regulatory commissionsThe Government CorporationsINDEPENDENT AGENCIES
Organized like Cabinetdepartments GSA, NASA, EPA Civil Rights Commission,Peace Corps, FCC American Battle MonumentsCommission Citizens Stamp AdvisoryCommitteeINDEPENDENT EXECUTIVE AGENCIES
Largely outside of president’scontrol 10 Rules & regulations have theforce and effect of law Can mediate disputes in theirfields Does work Congress does nothave time for. Federal Reserve FTC; SEC; FCC; NLRBINDEPENDENT REGULATORYCOMMISSIONS
Carry out business activities First: Bank of the United States (1791) Export-Import Bank US Postal Service Amtrak Though function like businesses, all employees are publicGOVERNMENT CORPORATIONS
Most federal employees are notpresidential appointees Civil Service created as a way to staffthese administrative jobs Jackson’s Spoils System Pendleton ActCIVIL SERVICE