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Bureaucracy - government at work


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Bureaucracy - government at work

  1. 1. FederalBureaucracyExecutiveOffice of thePresidentExecutiveDepartmentsIndependentAgenciesThe CivilServiceGOVERNMENT AT WORK:THE BUREAUCRACY
  3. 3.  Large, complex administrative structure that handles theeveryday business of an organizationOrganizations with a bureaucracy Federal Government US Army McDonald’s Catholic Church Bishop WalshWHAT IS A BUREAUCRACY?
  4. 4. Hierarchical Structure Chain of command; pyramid structure Pro: Con:Job Specialization Each member has certain defined duties & responsibilities Pro: Con:Formalized Rules Established set of regulations Pro: Con:FEATURES OF A BUREAUCRACY
  5. 5.  Agencies, people & procedures that help the government carryout its policies Almost all in the Executive Branch Constitution gives the President broad powers to establish anadministration to carry out his or her policiesExecutive Office of the PresidentCabinet DepartmentsIndependent AgenciesTHE FEDERAL BUREAUCRACY
  6. 6. Department -- Cabinet-levelAgencies & Administrations Usually single-administrators; near Cabinet-level EPA; NASACommissions Regulate business FCC; SECCorporations or Authorities Business-like activities FDIC; TVAWHAT’S IN A NAME?
  7. 7.  Until 1857, presidents paid support staff out of pocketEOP Established 1939 Reorganized in every administrationWhite House OfficeNational Security CouncilOMBCouncil of Economic AdvisersEXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT
  9. 9.  Rule of propinquity: closer your office to the Oval, the moreinfluence you have. West Wing > East Wing > Old Executive Office BuildingWHITE HOUSE OFFICE
  10. 10. Chief of Staff Top Aide Directs White HouseoperationsPress Secretary Gives daily press briefings;voice of administrationWhite House Counsel (legaladviser)Communications DirectorDeputy COSOffice of Legislative AffairsWHO’S IN THE WEST WING?
  11. 11.  Meets at the Presidents call to assist in most foreign matters Members: VP, Sec of State & Defense, CIA Director, chairmanof Join Chiefs of Staff National Security Adviser heads the staff of policy experts Advisory bodyNATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL
  12. 12.  Large & influential Prepares the federal budget submitted by the President Budget: detailed list of receipts (money in) and expenditures(money out) during a fiscal year (Oct 1 – Sept 30) Federal agencies submit budget proposals to the OMB OMB revises & fits the requests into the President’s plan Oversees the funds appropriated by Congress Helps president prepare executive orders & veto messagesOFFICE OF MANAGEMENT & BUDGET
  13. 13.  Three members; confirmed by Senate Chief economic advisers to the President Helps prepare Annual Economic Report to CongressCOUNCIL OF ECONOMIC ADVISERS
  14. 14.  15 Cabinet Departments Not mentioned in Constitution 1789: State, Treasury & War Each department has its own policy area Each headed by a secretary (except DOJ) DEPARTMENTS
  15. 15.  At one time, the main advisors to the president Today, most time spent administering respective departmentTwo Goals Serve the President Promote & protect his or her department Subject to Senate confirmation Oldest: Biggest: Largest Budget: Newest:WHAT DOES THE CABINET DO?
  16. 16.  “Cabinet” = head of 15 departments + other officers atpresident’s discretion OMB Director VP Chief of Staff US Trade Rep EPA US Ambassador to the UNCABINET-LEVEL OFFICERS
  17. 17.  Party of the President Played a role in the campaign Regional Balance – Where should the Sec. of Interior comefrom? First Woman: First African-American: First Hispanic: First Female Sec. of State: First Female Attorney General:WHO GETS APPOINTED?
  18. 18.  Bill Clinton: Cabinet played a key role JFK: Cabinet meetings a “waste of time” Lincoln: “Seven nays, one aye: the ayes have it.” Taft: “The Cabinet is a mere creation of the President’s will…Itexists only by custom.” Jackson: Kitchen Cabinet FDR: Brain Trust Truman: Cronies Most presidents hold regular cabinet meetings Often media eventsPRESIDENTS ON THE CABINET
  19. 19.  None until 1880s Today, nearly 150 Exist outside the Cabinet departments NOT independent of the presidentIndependent Executive AgenciesIndependent Regulatory commissionsThe Government CorporationsINDEPENDENT AGENCIES
  20. 20.  Organized like Cabinetdepartments GSA, NASA, EPA Civil Rights Commission,Peace Corps, FCC American Battle MonumentsCommission Citizens Stamp AdvisoryCommitteeINDEPENDENT EXECUTIVE AGENCIES
  21. 21.  Largely outside of president’scontrol 10 Rules & regulations have theforce and effect of law Can mediate disputes in theirfields Does work Congress does nothave time for. Federal Reserve FTC; SEC; FCC; NLRBINDEPENDENT REGULATORYCOMMISSIONS
  22. 22.  Carry out business activities First: Bank of the United States (1791) Export-Import Bank US Postal Service Amtrak Though function like businesses, all employees are publicGOVERNMENT CORPORATIONS
  23. 23.  Most federal employees are notpresidential appointees Civil Service created as a way to staffthese administrative jobs Jackson’s Spoils System Pendleton ActCIVIL SERVICE