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Demystifying Studio Equipment
& the Advanced Settings of a Camera
• Introduction to Studio
Lighting & Practical Lighting
Applications
• Tungsten Lights, Studio Flash
and Available Light
• ...
• Compared to a normal
household lamp, which is
only 100 watts, a tungsten
studio light is 20,000 watts
• There are four m...
1. The Flash
– High intensity & short
duration
– Renders correct color
to daylight

2. AC Discharge
–
–

–

High output bu...
blue tint

orange tint

• Digital Cameras often read “white” with a cool
or warm temperature: this means that the white
wi...
• DLSRs (and some other digital cameras) can be custom set for
Aperture (f/stop) and Shutterspeed which are related by rat...
• Shutter & Aperture
– Aperture is the AMOUNT of
light allowed into the camera
by SIZE, measured by fnumber or f-stop
– Sh...
relationships of f/stops & shutterspeeds

f16 at 1/30 = f/11 at 1/60 =
f/8 at 1/125 = f5.6 at 1/250 =
f/4 at 1/500

• Star...
overexposed

correct exposure

• using a lightmeter and the chart from the
last slide can help you avoid over or
underexpo...
•
•
•

POINT SOURCE: a spotlight is pointed from above to create shadows and contrast
DIFFUSE SOURCE: a floodlight “fills”...
Posing Models & Compositions
Annie Leibovitz and the Professional Portrait
• B. 1949 • she began contributing photographs to
Rolling Stone in 1970
• She was made chief photographer of
Rolling Stone...
STEP 1
• Light the
Background/Back
drop first
• Aim the light at
the backdrop
behind the model
STEP 2
• Overlight the hair
from above and
behind the model
• Use a softbox to
diffuse some of
the light
STEP 3
• Use a “kicker
light” (also known
as the accent
light) to highlight
the opposite areas
highlighted by the
main lig...
STEP 4
• Use the main light
to add dramatic
shadows and
highlights to the
subject
• Aim this light to
flatter the model’s
...
STEP 5
• Use a fill light to
soften
shadows, soften
hard edges and
control negative
space
Final Image
• Setup all five
lights together so
that the model is
completely lit
Position & Placement
• the ¾ turn
• 45º angle head-tilt
• projecting the chin out toward the
camera
• using a slightly hig...
Posing the Head & Shoulders
• avoid “football shoulders”
by having the subject turn
to a 45 ⁰ angle
• have the subject sit...
Posing the Full Body
• make the pose look natural
• the legs are almost parallel
to the camera plane
• the shoulders are n...
Posing Groups
• use figure triangles to
organize groups
• use angles and
perspective
• use leading lines
• use
foreground,...
Cropping
• shooting portraits from a
distance will increase your
depth-of-field and blur out the
background (also can be
a...
Unit 5   notes pt 2
Unit 5   notes pt 2
Unit 5   notes pt 2
Unit 5   notes pt 2
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Unit 5 notes pt 2

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Unit 5 notes pt 2

  1. 1. Demystifying Studio Equipment & the Advanced Settings of a Camera
  2. 2. • Introduction to Studio Lighting & Practical Lighting Applications • Tungsten Lights, Studio Flash and Available Light • Control of Contrast, Direction and Color Balance
  3. 3. • Compared to a normal household lamp, which is only 100 watts, a tungsten studio light is 20,000 watts • There are four major studio lights: – – – – Flash AC Discharge Tungsten-halogen Photoflood
  4. 4. 1. The Flash – High intensity & short duration – Renders correct color to daylight 2. AC Discharge – – – High output but less heat Light flickers as opposed to being a continuous light source Casts a blue tint 3. Tungsten-Halogen – Most commonly used artificial light (next to the flash) – Emit large amounts of heat when operating – Creates an orange tint 4. Photoflood – – Broad soft light source Can create an orange tint as the lamp’s glass fogs with age
  5. 5. blue tint orange tint • Digital Cameras often read “white” with a cool or warm temperature: this means that the white will have an orange or blue tint to it, which can be unsightly • You can correct this one of two ways: 1) in the camera or 2) in Photoshop • The best way to correct for white balance is to check for a neutral object (or bring a white object with you) and change your settings to match this white object white balance reference auto white balance vs. custom setting
  6. 6. • DLSRs (and some other digital cameras) can be custom set for Aperture (f/stop) and Shutterspeed which are related by ratios • Light is manipulated and used by these parts of the camera
  7. 7. • Shutter & Aperture – Aperture is the AMOUNT of light allowed into the camera by SIZE, measured by fnumber or f-stop – Shutterspeed is the DURATION of light allowed into the camera by SPEED or TIME, measured in fractions of seconds • Film Speed or ISO number refers to the light quality, an ISO 100 is set for sunny daylight while an ISO 200 is set for indoor or cloudy days
  8. 8. relationships of f/stops & shutterspeeds f16 at 1/30 = f/11 at 1/60 = f/8 at 1/125 = f5.6 at 1/250 = f/4 at 1/500 • Starting with an ISO 400 and an f-stop of 5.6 is a good general rule of thumb • You can use your LIGHT METER to adjust the shutterspeed • To the right you can see a chart which is a good starting point for f/stop-shutter-ISO ratios • the LIGHT METER is an instrument for measuring the intensity of light in a certain place or upon a certain object, having an adjustable scale for determining the optimum relations of shutter speeds and stops at each intensity
  9. 9. overexposed correct exposure • using a lightmeter and the chart from the last slide can help you avoid over or underexposing your subject • lights are proportionate to shutter and aperture: more bulbs or lights increase stops and shutterspeed • the light meter will slide back and forth to indicate proper lighting – a balanced light reading will give a correct exposure | underexposed | | | | | | | | | |
  10. 10. • • • POINT SOURCE: a spotlight is pointed from above to create shadows and contrast DIFFUSE SOURCE: a floodlight “fills” the area creating contrast and adding grays REFLECTION: a reflector is used to soften the light and the contrast 1. spotlight 2. spotlight + diffused light * 3. spotlight + diffused light closer a light tent (or light box) with lighting *from reflector 1. spotlight 2. spotlight + floodlight 3. spotlight, floodlight + reflector 1. spotlight only 2. spotlight, floodlight + reflector
  11. 11. Posing Models & Compositions Annie Leibovitz and the Professional Portrait
  12. 12. • B. 1949 • she began contributing photographs to Rolling Stone in 1970 • She was made chief photographer of Rolling Stone three years later • She is known for her images of rock personalities, notably a 1975 Rolling Stones concert tour series • She became a principal photographer for Vanity Fair magazine in 1983 • Her arresting, generally posed, and technically accomplished images of the famous and the unknown, in deeply saturated color or modulated black and white, represent a broad survey of American popular culture
  13. 13. STEP 1 • Light the Background/Back drop first • Aim the light at the backdrop behind the model
  14. 14. STEP 2 • Overlight the hair from above and behind the model • Use a softbox to diffuse some of the light
  15. 15. STEP 3 • Use a “kicker light” (also known as the accent light) to highlight the opposite areas highlighted by the main light or key light(s)
  16. 16. STEP 4 • Use the main light to add dramatic shadows and highlights to the subject • Aim this light to flatter the model’s natural beauty
  17. 17. STEP 5 • Use a fill light to soften shadows, soften hard edges and control negative space
  18. 18. Final Image • Setup all five lights together so that the model is completely lit
  19. 19. Position & Placement • the ¾ turn • 45º angle head-tilt • projecting the chin out toward the camera • using a slightly higher camera position what not to do
  20. 20. Posing the Head & Shoulders • avoid “football shoulders” by having the subject turn to a 45 ⁰ angle • have the subject sit tall – no slouching! • never tip a man’s head to the high (feminine) shoulder as he will look feminine • women's heads can be tipped toward either shoulder, but the feminine shoulder is more appealing
  21. 21. Posing the Full Body • make the pose look natural • the legs are almost parallel to the camera plane • the shoulders are nearly perpendicular to the camera plane and are turned at a 45º angle • the head (and therefore the face) are at an angle slightly off of the shoulder, pointed to the camera left what not to do what to do
  22. 22. Posing Groups • use figure triangles to organize groups • use angles and perspective • use leading lines • use foreground, midground and background • vary sizes and use both horizontal and vertical space • keep images dynamic • create “book-ends” and symmetry
  23. 23. Cropping • shooting portraits from a distance will increase your depth-of-field and blur out the background (also can be achieved in Photoshop) • when cropping an image, there are several things to keep in mind: a) crop above or below joints to avoid “amputated limbs,” b) leave some background to avoid “claustrophobic pictures” and c) do not crop tops of heads

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