rules of lighting
the use of tone
tones of gray

• The world can be broken into 9 tones of gray
– represents the 256 million colors the human eye registers
...
types of light
• Hard light
– High contrast
– Pure black and pure white

• Soft Light
–
–
–
–

Low contrast
Overcast filte...
hard light
soft light
types of light
• Natural light
– Sunlight & Moonlight
– Reflected sunlight & moonlight
– Overcast and Soft

• Artificial L...
natural light
fluorescent light
incandescent light
lighting techniques
• Floodlighting & Spotlighting
– Dramatic
– High contrast

• Directional Lighting
– Control of shadows...
floodlights &
spotlights
floodlights &
spotlights
under lighting
over lighting
over lighting
over lighting
multi-lighting
multi-lighting
lighting techniques
• Backlighting
– Light source is behind the
subject matter
– Creates deep shadow
against a bright back...
backlighting
silhouette
• 1:1 Flat Lighting – High Key

lighting ratios

– Equal amounts of light for the highlight and shadows

• 2:1 General Col...
examples of lighting ratios
keys: overall tone
• High Key
– White/off-white background & brighter subject matter
– Low lighting ratio near 2:1
– Elimi...
examples of keys
• F-stop

darker

lighter

– how MUCH light is allowed by SIZE of aperture

• Shutter Speed
– how LONG film is exposed to ...
in photoshop
• Levels & Curves
• Lighting Effects Filter
• Darken Image using Mimicked F-stops:
– Duplicate your backgroun...
f-stops in photoshop
Tones

Lightning Techniques

Keys & Ratios

F-Stops

Measure of Grays

Manipulation of Highlights &
Shadows

Used During
t...
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Unit 5 notes pt 1

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Unit 5 notes pt 1

  1. 1. rules of lighting the use of tone
  2. 2. tones of gray • The world can be broken into 9 tones of gray – represents the 256 million colors the human eye registers • Decide up front what type of tone photo you are making – – – – 2 tone: High Contrast 3 tone: Medium Contrast 5 tone: Dramatic Lighting Or 9 tone: Natural Lights
  3. 3. types of light • Hard light – High contrast – Pure black and pure white • Soft Light – – – – Low contrast Overcast filter Levels 2-8 (no 1 or 9) The more lights you add the more grays you will add to your photo
  4. 4. hard light
  5. 5. soft light
  6. 6. types of light • Natural light – Sunlight & Moonlight – Reflected sunlight & moonlight – Overcast and Soft • Artificial Light – – – – Fluorescent Flash Incandescent Hard and Enhances Contrast
  7. 7. natural light
  8. 8. fluorescent light
  9. 9. incandescent light
  10. 10. lighting techniques • Floodlighting & Spotlighting – Dramatic – High contrast • Directional Lighting – Control of shadows – Creates strong sense of mood – Under & Over • Multiple Light Sources – Enhances center of interest – Washes out background
  11. 11. floodlights & spotlights
  12. 12. floodlights & spotlights
  13. 13. under lighting
  14. 14. over lighting
  15. 15. over lighting
  16. 16. over lighting
  17. 17. multi-lighting
  18. 18. multi-lighting
  19. 19. lighting techniques • Backlighting – Light source is behind the subject matter – Creates deep shadow against a bright background • Silhouettes – Developed in the 1700’s – Solid black shapes
  20. 20. backlighting
  21. 21. silhouette
  22. 22. • 1:1 Flat Lighting – High Key lighting ratios – Equal amounts of light for the highlight and shadows • 2:1 General Color Photography – Middle Key – 2 times more light in the highlight areas over the shadowed portions of the subject matter • 3:1 General B&W Photography – Middle Key – 3 times more light in the highlight areas over the shadowed portions of the subject matter • 4:1 Dramatic Lighting – Low Key – 4 times more light – Common for traditional portraiture • 8:1 Very Dramatic Lighting – Low Key – 8 times more light – Shadows become black abstract shapes
  23. 23. examples of lighting ratios
  24. 24. keys: overall tone • High Key – White/off-white background & brighter subject matter – Low lighting ratio near 2:1 – Eliminate shadows • Middle Key – Use skin tone to set the mood – The “Goldilocks” photo • Low Key – Dark background and dark subject matter – Higher lighting ratios 3:1 or 4:1 – Shadows emphasized
  25. 25. examples of keys
  26. 26. • F-stop darker lighter – how MUCH light is allowed by SIZE of aperture • Shutter Speed – how LONG film is exposed to light coming through the lens • Work together – Both work together as in the bucket analogy: • Large, dumping of water into a bucket quickly (f-stop) • Thin stream of water over a long time (shutter speed)
  27. 27. in photoshop • Levels & Curves • Lighting Effects Filter • Darken Image using Mimicked F-stops: – Duplicate your background layer and put the duplicate layer in Multiply mode – This will create the effect of lowering your f stop by 1 • Lighten Image using Mimicked F-stops: – Duplicate your background layer and put the duplicate layer in Screen mode – This will create the effect of raising your f stop by 1
  28. 28. f-stops in photoshop
  29. 29. Tones Lightning Techniques Keys & Ratios F-Stops Measure of Grays Manipulation of Highlights & Shadows Used During the Shoot Aperture setting on Camera 1 – White Artificial – Hard (Over/Under & Backlighting) 1:1 High Key F/8 2 – High Gray Artificial – Hard (Over/Under & Backlighting) 1:1 High Key F/5.6 3 – High Gray Artificial – Hard (Over/Under & Backlighting) 1:1 High Key F/5.6 4 – Mid Gray Natural – Soft (Overcast) 2:1 Mid Key F/5.6 5 – Mid Gray Natural – Soft (Overcast) 2:1 Mid Key F/4 6 – Mid Gray Natural – Soft (Overcast) 2:1 Mid Key F/4 7 – Low Gray Artificial – Hard (Over/Under & Backlighting) 3:1 Low Key F/2.8 8 – Low Gray Artificial – Hard (Over/Under & Backlighting) 4:1 Low Key Portraits F/2 9 – Black Artificial – Hard (Over/Under & Backlighting) 8:1 Low Key Extreme Contrast F/1.4

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