What was theIndustrial Revolution?• It was a dramatic change in the world inthe way that products weremanufactured. It went from“manufacturing” (making by hand) oneat a time to the mass production ofgoods by machines (hence the name theAge of Machines).
What was theIndustrial Revolution?• It began in Britain in the 1700s and wasat full steam by 1769 (when James Wattdeveloped an effective steam engine).
What was theIndustrial Revolution?• The Industrial Revolution then spread toother parts of Europe, North America,and the rest of the world.
What was theIndustrial Revolution?• Some parts of the world have not yetexperienced the Industrial Revolutionfully and are still basically agrariansocieties where people are subsistencefarmers• Examples: parts of Africa, Asia, and theAmericas.
The Industrial RevolutionFrom:• few peoplemaking things• making thingsat home• making thingsby hand• selling toneighboursTo:• many peoplemaking things• making things infactories• using machinesto make things• selling country-or world-wide
What does a country need for anIndustrial Revolution to happen?a. Labour Supply – a country needscheap, abundant labourb. Food – adequate amounts of food forthat labour supply
What does a country need for anIndustrial Revolution to happen?c. Capital (money) – lots of money isneeded to build factories, buymachines and pay workers.Usually this money isobtained through(unfair) trade.BuildFactoriesBuyMachinesPayWorkers
What does a country need for anIndustrial Revolution to happen?d. Raw Materials – materials are neededto build machines and productscheaply. The two biggest needs areiron and coal. Other materials such ascotton, wool, wood, other metals, etc.are all beneficial.
What does a country need for anIndustrial Revolution to happen?e. Markets –enough peoplewho need tobuy products.These peopleusually lived inlarge cities,working infactories, or incolonies.OverseasEuropeBritainLocal
What does a country need for anIndustrial Revolution to happen?f. A laissez-faire capitalist government??
Capitalism• Capitalism:• an economic system in which most things areowned by individuals or companies ratherthan by the government. Free market supplyand demand determines price and productionof goods.
Laissez-faire government• Laissez-faire is a French term that means “letdo / leave it be”• It is an economic policy in which agovernment does very little to regulatebusiness. Minimal government interferenceis supposed to make the economy moreprosperous.• However, it also has manypotential hazardous effects.
Where can it get these things?What usually happens before anI.R.?a. Agricultural Revolution – provided foodand a labour supply.b. Colonization – provided the mothercountry with raw materials, capital, anda market without benefiting the colony.
Recall the Results of theAgricultural Revolution1. Agricultural production increased2. More food allowed for more population3. Large farms with advanced methods pushedsmall farms and farmers out of business.4. Many farmers moved to the cities. Thepopulation of cities increased rapidly.5. Unemployed farmers took jobs in factoriesand mines.
Major Areas of Change Duringthe Industrial Revolution1. Textile Manufacturing2. Steam Power3. Mining4. Factory production system5. Transportation6. Society
1. Manufacturing Textiles• Prior to the IndustrialRevolution, most clothand clothing was madein homes.• Women made things byhand or used verysimple machines.
Manufacturing Textiles• Clothing hadtraditionally been madein homes.• At first, when newmachines wereinvented, they werebrought into the homesand used there.• This was called CottageIndustry.
Manufacturing Textiles• A series ofinventions tooktextile productionout of the homeinto the factory.• The machinesbecame too bigand too costly tohave in a home.
3. Changes in Mining• The use of steam engines and largemachines in factories depended on twomajor things:Coal (to power the steam engine)Iron (to build the machines)• As a result, there was a major increasein mining.
1800 1 ton of coal 50, 000 miners1850 30 tons 200, 000 miners1880 300 million tons 500, 000 miners1914 250 million tons 1, 200, 000 minersCoal Mining in Britain:1800-1914
Mine & Forge [1840-1880]• Innovations such as the Bessemerprocess make it possible to use steelinstead of iron.
4. Factory Production• Once businessmen had access to coal andsteel, they worked to create factories.• Factories concentrated production in oneplace [near materials].
4. Factory Production• Factories were located near sources of coaland iron rather than labour or markets.• Factories required a lot of capitalinvestment. Money was required to buythe factory, and the machines, and to paythe workers.• Nevertheless, it was worthwhile to createfactories (especially if you didn’t pay theworkers very much).
5. Transportation• Now there was a much larger quantityof products being produced.• Carts and horses on muddy roads wereinadequate.• Methods of transportation had tochange to help get the products tomarket quickly.
Early CanalsBritain’s EarliestTransportationInfrastructure
The Luddites: 1811-1816• Luddites attacked machines to try tohurt the factory owners.
BritishSoldiersFire onBritishWorkers:Let us die likemen, and notbe sold likeslaves!Peterloo Massacre, 1819
The Socialists• Socialists believed that people as a societyshould operate and own the means ofproduction, not individuals.• Their goal was a society that benefitedeveryone, not just a rich, well-connectedfew.
The Socialists: Utopians• Utopians tried tobuild isolatedperfectcommunities[utopias].
The Socialists: Marxists• Marxists/Communists tried to overthrow thecapitalists and change entire societies.
Government Response• Workers’ unions, reformers, and politicianswith consciences worked for better laws.• They successfully changed manyGovernment Policies Abolition of slavery Factory Acts Child labour eliminated Relief for the poor Reform of voting
Positive Overall Effects• Development of industries –textiles, mining, machine building.• Development of several countries –transportation, communication, employment.• Inventions – led to new standards ofliving.• Progress??
Negative Overall Effects• Need for immigration for many peopleto try to improve life.• Unfair labour practices benefited therich and harmed the poor – child labour,female labour at reduced pay.• Pollution and rapacious devouring ofresources.• Further colonization and exploitation.