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TheIndustrialRevolution(Part 1)
Factory Acts
What was theIndustrial Revolution?• It was a dramatic change in the world inthe way that products weremanufactured. It wen...
What was theIndustrial Revolution?• It began in Britain in the 1700s and wasat full steam by 1769 (when James Wattdevelope...
What was theIndustrial Revolution?• The Industrial Revolution then spread toother parts of Europe, North America,and the r...
What was theIndustrial Revolution?• Some parts of the world have not yetexperienced the Industrial Revolutionfully and are...
The Industrial RevolutionFrom:• few peoplemaking things• making thingsat home• making thingsby hand• selling toneighboursT...
What does a country need for anIndustrial Revolution to happen?a. Labour Supply – a country needscheap, abundant labourb. ...
What does a country need for anIndustrial Revolution to happen?c. Capital (money) – lots of money isneeded to build factor...
What does a country need for anIndustrial Revolution to happen?d. Raw Materials – materials are neededto build machines an...
What does a country need for anIndustrial Revolution to happen?e. Markets –enough peoplewho need tobuy products.These peop...
What does a country need for anIndustrial Revolution to happen?f. A laissez-faire capitalist government??
Capitalism• Capitalism:• an economic system in which most things areowned by individuals or companies ratherthan by the go...
Laissez-faire government• Laissez-faire is a French term that means “letdo / leave it be”• It is an economic policy in whi...
Where can it get these things?What usually happens before anI.R.?a. Agricultural Revolution – provided foodand a labour su...
Recall the Results of theAgricultural Revolution1. Agricultural production increased2. More food allowed for more populati...
Major Areas of Change Duringthe Industrial Revolution1. Textile Manufacturing2. Steam Power3. Mining4. Factory production ...
1. Manufacturing Textiles• Prior to the IndustrialRevolution, most clothand clothing was madein homes.• Women made things ...
Manufacturing Textiles• Clothing hadtraditionally been madein homes.• At first, when newmachines wereinvented, they werebr...
Manufacturing Textiles• A series ofinventions tooktextile productionout of the homeinto the factory.• The machinesbecame t...
John Kay’s “Flying Shuttle”
Spinning Mule
The Power Loom
Manufacturing Textiles• Now machines did most of the work andwomen and children made sure themachines were running correct...
Young “Bobbin-Doffers”
Textile FactoryWorkers in England1813 2400 looms 150, 000 workers1833 85, 000 looms 200, 000 workers1850 224, 000 looms >1...
2. Finding power for machines.• Before the Industrial Revolution power camefrom horses, oxen, or humans, or perhapsfrom wi...
Diagramof aWatermill
Invention of the Steam Engine• The machines of the Industrial Revolutionneeded much more power.• This led to the invention...
Steam Tractor
3. Changes in Mining• The use of steam engines and largemachines in factories depended on twomajor things:Coal (to power ...
1800 1 ton of coal 50, 000 miners1850 30 tons 200, 000 miners1880 300 million tons 500, 000 miners1914 250 million tons 1,...
Coalfields & Industrial Areas
British Pig Iron Production
Mine & Forge [1840-1880]• Innovations such as the Bessemerprocess make it possible to use steelinstead of iron.
4. Factory Production• Once businessmen had access to coal andsteel, they worked to create factories.• Factories concentra...
4. Factory Production• Factories were located near sources of coaland iron rather than labour or markets.• Factories requi...
The Factory System• Rigid schedule.• 12-14 hour day.• Dangerous conditions.• Mind-numbing monotony.
5. Transportation• Now there was a much larger quantityof products being produced.• Carts and horses on muddy roads werein...
Early CanalsBritain’s EarliestTransportationInfrastructure
Metals, Woolens, & Canals
Steamships
An Early Steam Locomotive
Later Locomotives
The Impact of the Railroad
TheIndustrialRevolution(Part 2)
ImpactOnSociety
6. Impact on Society• As a result of the Industrial Revolutionthe rich businessmen became richer.These “bourgeoisie” lived...
19c Bourgeoisie:The Industrial Nouveau Riche
Crystal Palace Exhibition: 1851Exhibitions of the new industrial utopia.
Crystal Palace: Interior Exhibits
Crystal Palace:British Ingenuity on Display
Some People Criticized theNew Bourgeoisie
Stereotype of the Factory Owner
6. Impact on Society• The poor workers who created thewealth did not have it so good.
“Upstairs”/“Downstairs” Life
Factory Wagesin Lancashire, 1830Age of Worker Male Wages Female Wagesunder 11 2s 3d. 2s. 4d.11 - 16 4s. 1d. 4s. 3d.17 - 21...
Typical Industrial Town
Cities became the CentresOf the Industrial Revolution
The New Industrial City
Problems of PollutionThe Silent Highwayman - 1858
The Life of the New Urban Poor:A Dickensian Nightmare!
Child Labor in the Mines
Child Labour in the Factories
ProtestorsandReformers
Private Charities
The Luddites: 1811-1816• Luddites attacked machines to try tohurt the factory owners.
BritishSoldiersFire onBritishWorkers:Let us die likemen, and notbe sold likeslaves!Peterloo Massacre, 1819
The Socialists• Socialists believed that people as a societyshould operate and own the means ofproduction, not individuals...
The Socialists: Utopians• Utopians tried tobuild isolatedperfectcommunities[utopias].
The Socialists: Marxists• Marxists/Communists tried to overthrow thecapitalists and change entire societies.
Government Response• Workers’ unions, reformers, and politicianswith consciences worked for better laws.• They successfull...
IndustrializationExpandsToOther Countries
By 1850:Zones of Industrializationon the European Continent• Northeast France.• Belgium.• The Netherlands.• German States....
Industrialization By 1850
Railroads on the Continent
Industrializationin the United States• The I.R. began later in the U.S., not reallygaining steam until the 1860s, after th...
• Factories and Railways were built allover the U.S., making it an industrialpower.
Major Immigrationto the U.S.
Share in WorldManufacturing Output:1750-1900
End of the 19th Century:New Inventions
End of the 19th Century:New Inventions
End of the 19th Century:New Inventions
End of the 19th Century:New Inventions
Positive Overall Effects• Development of industries –textiles, mining, machine building.• Development of several countries...
Negative Overall Effects• Need for immigration for many peopleto try to improve life.• Unfair labour practices benefited t...
Industrial revolution   part 1
Industrial revolution   part 1
Industrial revolution   part 1
Industrial revolution   part 1
Industrial revolution   part 1
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Industrial revolution part 1

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Industrial revolution part 1

  1. 1. TheIndustrialRevolution(Part 1)
  2. 2. Factory Acts
  3. 3. What was theIndustrial Revolution?• It was a dramatic change in the world inthe way that products weremanufactured. It went from“manufacturing” (making by hand) oneat a time to the mass production ofgoods by machines (hence the name theAge of Machines).
  4. 4. What was theIndustrial Revolution?• It began in Britain in the 1700s and wasat full steam by 1769 (when James Wattdeveloped an effective steam engine).
  5. 5. What was theIndustrial Revolution?• The Industrial Revolution then spread toother parts of Europe, North America,and the rest of the world.
  6. 6. What was theIndustrial Revolution?• Some parts of the world have not yetexperienced the Industrial Revolutionfully and are still basically agrariansocieties where people are subsistencefarmers• Examples: parts of Africa, Asia, and theAmericas.
  7. 7. The Industrial RevolutionFrom:• few peoplemaking things• making thingsat home• making thingsby hand• selling toneighboursTo:• many peoplemaking things• making things infactories• using machinesto make things• selling country-or world-wide
  8. 8. What does a country need for anIndustrial Revolution to happen?a. Labour Supply – a country needscheap, abundant labourb. Food – adequate amounts of food forthat labour supply
  9. 9. What does a country need for anIndustrial Revolution to happen?c. Capital (money) – lots of money isneeded to build factories, buymachines and pay workers.Usually this money isobtained through(unfair) trade.BuildFactoriesBuyMachinesPayWorkers
  10. 10. What does a country need for anIndustrial Revolution to happen?d. Raw Materials – materials are neededto build machines and productscheaply. The two biggest needs areiron and coal. Other materials such ascotton, wool, wood, other metals, etc.are all beneficial.
  11. 11. What does a country need for anIndustrial Revolution to happen?e. Markets –enough peoplewho need tobuy products.These peopleusually lived inlarge cities,working infactories, or incolonies.OverseasEuropeBritainLocal
  12. 12. What does a country need for anIndustrial Revolution to happen?f. A laissez-faire capitalist government??
  13. 13. Capitalism• Capitalism:• an economic system in which most things areowned by individuals or companies ratherthan by the government. Free market supplyand demand determines price and productionof goods.
  14. 14. Laissez-faire government• Laissez-faire is a French term that means “letdo / leave it be”• It is an economic policy in which agovernment does very little to regulatebusiness. Minimal government interferenceis supposed to make the economy moreprosperous.• However, it also has manypotential hazardous effects.
  15. 15. Where can it get these things?What usually happens before anI.R.?a. Agricultural Revolution – provided foodand a labour supply.b. Colonization – provided the mothercountry with raw materials, capital, anda market without benefiting the colony.
  16. 16. Recall the Results of theAgricultural Revolution1. Agricultural production increased2. More food allowed for more population3. Large farms with advanced methods pushedsmall farms and farmers out of business.4. Many farmers moved to the cities. Thepopulation of cities increased rapidly.5. Unemployed farmers took jobs in factoriesand mines.
  17. 17. Major Areas of Change Duringthe Industrial Revolution1. Textile Manufacturing2. Steam Power3. Mining4. Factory production system5. Transportation6. Society
  18. 18. 1. Manufacturing Textiles• Prior to the IndustrialRevolution, most clothand clothing was madein homes.• Women made things byhand or used verysimple machines.
  19. 19. Manufacturing Textiles• Clothing hadtraditionally been madein homes.• At first, when newmachines wereinvented, they werebrought into the homesand used there.• This was called CottageIndustry.
  20. 20. Manufacturing Textiles• A series ofinventions tooktextile productionout of the homeinto the factory.• The machinesbecame too bigand too costly tohave in a home.
  21. 21. John Kay’s “Flying Shuttle”
  22. 22. Spinning Mule
  23. 23. The Power Loom
  24. 24. Manufacturing Textiles• Now machines did most of the work andwomen and children made sure themachines were running correctly.
  25. 25. Young “Bobbin-Doffers”
  26. 26. Textile FactoryWorkers in England1813 2400 looms 150, 000 workers1833 85, 000 looms 200, 000 workers1850 224, 000 looms >1 million workers• Total production of textiles skyrocketed.
  27. 27. 2. Finding power for machines.• Before the Industrial Revolution power camefrom horses, oxen, or humans, or perhapsfrom windmills or watermills.
  28. 28. Diagramof aWatermill
  29. 29. Invention of the Steam Engine• The machines of the Industrial Revolutionneeded much more power.• This led to the invention of the steamengine (by James Watt).
  30. 30. Steam Tractor
  31. 31. 3. Changes in Mining• The use of steam engines and largemachines in factories depended on twomajor things:Coal (to power the steam engine)Iron (to build the machines)• As a result, there was a major increasein mining.
  32. 32. 1800 1 ton of coal 50, 000 miners1850 30 tons 200, 000 miners1880 300 million tons 500, 000 miners1914 250 million tons 1, 200, 000 minersCoal Mining in Britain:1800-1914
  33. 33. Coalfields & Industrial Areas
  34. 34. British Pig Iron Production
  35. 35. Mine & Forge [1840-1880]• Innovations such as the Bessemerprocess make it possible to use steelinstead of iron.
  36. 36. 4. Factory Production• Once businessmen had access to coal andsteel, they worked to create factories.• Factories concentrated production in oneplace [near materials].
  37. 37. 4. Factory Production• Factories were located near sources of coaland iron rather than labour or markets.• Factories required a lot of capitalinvestment. Money was required to buythe factory, and the machines, and to paythe workers.• Nevertheless, it was worthwhile to createfactories (especially if you didn’t pay theworkers very much).
  38. 38. The Factory System• Rigid schedule.• 12-14 hour day.• Dangerous conditions.• Mind-numbing monotony.
  39. 39. 5. Transportation• Now there was a much larger quantityof products being produced.• Carts and horses on muddy roads wereinadequate.• Methods of transportation had tochange to help get the products tomarket quickly.
  40. 40. Early CanalsBritain’s EarliestTransportationInfrastructure
  41. 41. Metals, Woolens, & Canals
  42. 42. Steamships
  43. 43. An Early Steam Locomotive
  44. 44. Later Locomotives
  45. 45. The Impact of the Railroad
  46. 46. TheIndustrialRevolution(Part 2)
  47. 47. ImpactOnSociety
  48. 48. 6. Impact on Society• As a result of the Industrial Revolutionthe rich businessmen became richer.These “bourgeoisie” lived in a fairdegree of luxury.
  49. 49. 19c Bourgeoisie:The Industrial Nouveau Riche
  50. 50. Crystal Palace Exhibition: 1851Exhibitions of the new industrial utopia.
  51. 51. Crystal Palace: Interior Exhibits
  52. 52. Crystal Palace:British Ingenuity on Display
  53. 53. Some People Criticized theNew Bourgeoisie
  54. 54. Stereotype of the Factory Owner
  55. 55. 6. Impact on Society• The poor workers who created thewealth did not have it so good.
  56. 56. “Upstairs”/“Downstairs” Life
  57. 57. Factory Wagesin Lancashire, 1830Age of Worker Male Wages Female Wagesunder 11 2s 3d. 2s. 4d.11 - 16 4s. 1d. 4s. 3d.17 - 21 10s. 2d. 7s. 3d.22 - 26 17s. 2d. 8s. 5d.27 - 31 20s. 4d. 8s. 7d.32 - 36 22s. 8d. 8s. 9d.37 - 41 21s. 7d. 9s. 8d.42 - 46 20s. 3d. 9s. 3d.47 - 51 16s. 7d. 8s. 10d.52 - 56 16s. 4d. 8s. 4d.57 - 61 13s. 6d. 6s. 4d.
  58. 58. Typical Industrial Town
  59. 59. Cities became the CentresOf the Industrial Revolution
  60. 60. The New Industrial City
  61. 61. Problems of PollutionThe Silent Highwayman - 1858
  62. 62. The Life of the New Urban Poor:A Dickensian Nightmare!
  63. 63. Child Labor in the Mines
  64. 64. Child Labour in the Factories
  65. 65. ProtestorsandReformers
  66. 66. Private Charities
  67. 67. The Luddites: 1811-1816• Luddites attacked machines to try tohurt the factory owners.
  68. 68. BritishSoldiersFire onBritishWorkers:Let us die likemen, and notbe sold likeslaves!Peterloo Massacre, 1819
  69. 69. The Socialists• Socialists believed that people as a societyshould operate and own the means ofproduction, not individuals.• Their goal was a society that benefitedeveryone, not just a rich, well-connectedfew.
  70. 70. The Socialists: Utopians• Utopians tried tobuild isolatedperfectcommunities[utopias].
  71. 71. The Socialists: Marxists• Marxists/Communists tried to overthrow thecapitalists and change entire societies.
  72. 72. Government Response• Workers’ unions, reformers, and politicianswith consciences worked for better laws.• They successfully changed manyGovernment Policies Abolition of slavery Factory Acts Child labour eliminated Relief for the poor Reform of voting
  73. 73. IndustrializationExpandsToOther Countries
  74. 74. By 1850:Zones of Industrializationon the European Continent• Northeast France.• Belgium.• The Netherlands.• German States.• Northern Italy
  75. 75. Industrialization By 1850
  76. 76. Railroads on the Continent
  77. 77. Industrializationin the United States• The I.R. began later in the U.S., not reallygaining steam until the 1860s, after the CivilWar.
  78. 78. • Factories and Railways were built allover the U.S., making it an industrialpower.
  79. 79. Major Immigrationto the U.S.
  80. 80. Share in WorldManufacturing Output:1750-1900
  81. 81. End of the 19th Century:New Inventions
  82. 82. End of the 19th Century:New Inventions
  83. 83. End of the 19th Century:New Inventions
  84. 84. End of the 19th Century:New Inventions
  85. 85. Positive Overall Effects• Development of industries –textiles, mining, machine building.• Development of several countries –transportation, communication, employment.• Inventions – led to new standards ofliving.• Progress??
  86. 86. Negative Overall Effects• Need for immigration for many peopleto try to improve life.• Unfair labour practices benefited therich and harmed the poor – child labour,female labour at reduced pay.• Pollution and rapacious devouring ofresources.• Further colonization and exploitation.

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