What should I know for the reading quiz?
Before History <ul><li>The hominids  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Australopithecus   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Homo erectus   </...
Mesopotamia <ul><li>Mesopotamia: &quot;the land between the rivers&quot;  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Little rain, so area needs...
Later Mesopotamia <ul><li>The later Mesopotamian empires  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assyrians (northern Mesopotamia), about 13...
The formation of a complex society & cultural traditions   <ul><li>Economic specialization and trade  </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
The formation of a complex society & cultural traditions, pt II <ul><li>The development of written cultural traditions  </...
The broader influence of Mesopotamian society   <ul><li>Hebrews, Israelites, and Jews  </li></ul><ul><li>Early Hebrews are...
The broader influence of Mesopotamian society, pt II <ul><li>The Phoenicians  </li></ul><ul><li>First settlers about 3000 ...
Early Africa <ul><li>Egypt and Nubia: &quot;gifts of the Nile&quot;  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Egypt--lower third of Nile Rive...
Turmoil and empire  <ul><li>Period of upheaval after Old Kingdom (2160-2040 B.C.E.) </li></ul><ul><li>Middle Kingdom (2040...
The formation of complex societies & cultural traditions   <ul><li>The emergence of cities and stratified societies  </li>...
Economic specialization and trade  <ul><li>Bronze important but copper and tin rare and expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Iron m...
Early writing in the Nile valley  <ul><li>Hieroglyphics found on monuments and papyrus by 3200 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Hi...
The development of organized religious traditions  <ul><li>Principal gods: sun gods Amon and Re </li></ul><ul><li>Brief pe...
Early India <ul><li>Background  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neolithic villages in Indus River valley by 3000 B.C.E. </li></ul></...
The Indo-European migrations and early Aryan India   <ul><li>The Aryans and India  </li></ul><ul><li>The early Aryans  </l...
Origins of the caste system  <ul><li>Caste and  varna </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The meaning of  caste : hereditary, unchangeab...
Development of patriarchal society  <ul><li>Patriarchal and patrilineal society  </li></ul><ul><li>The Lawbook of Manu </l...
Religion in the Vedic Age   <ul><li>Aryan religion  </li></ul><ul><li>Aryan gods  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>War god, Indra </l...
The blending of Aryan and Dravidian values  <ul><li>The Upanishads, works of religious teachings (800-400 B.C.E.)  </li></...
Early China <ul><li>Early agricultural society and the Xia dynasty  </li></ul><ul><li>The Yellow River  </li></ul><ul><ul>...
The Shang and Zhou Dynasties <ul><li>The Shang dynasty: 1766-1122 B.C.E.  </li></ul><ul><li>Arose in the southern and east...
Society and family in ancient China   <ul><li>The social order  </li></ul><ul><li>The ruling elites with their lavish cons...
Family and patriarchy  <ul><li>Early dynasties ruled through family and kinship groups </li></ul><ul><li>Veneration of anc...
Early Chinese writing and cultural development   <ul><li>The secular cultural tradition  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Absence of ...
Ancient China and the larger world   <ul><li>Chinese cultivators and nomadic peoples of central Asia  </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
Early societies of Mesoamerica   <ul><li>The Olmecs  </li></ul><ul><li>Migration to Mesoamerica  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lar...
Heirs of the Olmecs: the Maya  <ul><li>The Maya lived in the highlands of Guatemala  </li></ul><ul><li>Besides maize, they...
Maya society and religion  <ul><li>Maya society was hierarchical  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kings, priests, and hereditary nob...
Heirs of the Olmecs: Teotihuacan  <ul><li>The city of Teotihuacan in the highlands of Mexico  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coloss...
Early societies of South America   <ul><li>Early Andean society and the Chavín cult  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early migration...
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What should I know for the reading quiz?

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A brief outline of the material students should know from the first 4 chapters or so of reading. Topics include: Pre-History, Mesopotamia, Shang and Zhou China, Indus River Civilization, Meso-American Civilizations and Egypt.

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What should I know for the reading quiz?

  1. 1. What should I know for the reading quiz?
  2. 2. Before History <ul><li>The hominids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Australopithecus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Homo erectus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Homo sapiens </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Economy and society of hunting and gathering peoples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some permanent Paleolithic settlements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The origins of agriculture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neolithic era; new stone age; refined tools and agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When was the Neolithic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Roles of men and women </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Early agriculture around 9000 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Merchants, migrants, and travelers spread food knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slash-and-burn cultivation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Population explosion caused by surplus </li></ul><ul><li>The origins of urban life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emergence of cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Earliest cities in the valley of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, 4000 to 3500 B.C.E </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Mesopotamia <ul><li>Mesopotamia: &quot;the land between the rivers&quot; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Little rain, so area needs irrigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food supplies increase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Human population increases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Migrants to the area increase--especially Semites </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sumer (in south) becomes population center </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>First cities emerge, 4000 B.C.E </li></ul><ul><li>Sargon of Akkad (2370-2315 B.C.E.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coup against king of Kish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seizes trade routes and natural resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gradually empire weakens and collapses about 2000 B.C.E. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hammurabi (1792-1750 B.C.E.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Centralizes the bureaucracy and regulates taxation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capital is Babylon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Law Code: law of retribution and importance of social status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hittite assault and empire crumbles in 1595 B.C.E. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Later Mesopotamia <ul><li>The later Mesopotamian empires </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assyrians (northern Mesopotamia), about 1300-612 B.C.E. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cities: Assur and Ninevah </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Powerful army: professional officers (merit), chariots, archers, iron weapons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unpopular rule leads to rebellions; ends 612 B.C.E. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Babylonian empire, 600-550 B.C.E. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nebuchadnezzar (605-562 B.C.E.) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hanging gardens of palace shows wealth and luxury </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. The formation of a complex society & cultural traditions <ul><li>Economic specialization and trade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bronze (made from copper and tin); used in weapons and later agricultural tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iron (about 1000 B.C.E.), cheaper and more widely available; used in weapons and tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wheel (about 3500 B.C.E.) helps trade; carts can carry more goods further </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shipbuilding: maritime trade increases in all directions; network develops </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The emergence of a stratified patriarchal society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social classes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cities: more opportunities to accumulate wealth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kings (hereditary) and nobles (royal family and supporters) are highest class </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Priests and priestesses rule temple communities with large incomes and staff </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Free commoners (peasants), dependent clients (no property); pay taxes and labor on building projects </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slaves (POWs, criminals, debt servitude): mostly domestic servants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patriarchy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hammurabi's code: men are head of the household </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Women get fewer rights after 2000 B.C.E.; by 1500 B.C.E. are wearing veils </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. The formation of a complex society & cultural traditions, pt II <ul><li>The development of written cultural traditions </li></ul><ul><li>Cuneiform, Mesopotamian writing style, becomes standard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reed stylus (wedge-shaped) pressed in clay then baked </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly commercial and tax documents </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Education: vocational to be scribe or government official </li></ul><ul><li>Literature: astronomy, mathematics, abstract (religious and literary like Gilgamesh) </li></ul>
  7. 7. The broader influence of Mesopotamian society <ul><li>Hebrews, Israelites, and Jews </li></ul><ul><li>Early Hebrews are pastoral nomads between Mesopotamia and Egypt (second millennium B.C.E.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Settle in some cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abraham leads group to Palestine 1850 B.C.E. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Descendents borrow law of retribution and flood story from Mesopotamia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some migrate to Egypt in eighteenth century B.C.E. then back to Palestine with Moses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Twelve tribes become Israelites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mesopotamian-style monarchs with Jerusalem as capital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>David (1000-970 B.C.E.) then Solomon (970-930 B.C.E.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Moses and monotheism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ten Commandments: moral and ethical standards for followers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compilation of teachings into Torah (1000-400 B.C.E.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assyrians conquer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conquer Israel in north and Judah in south and destroy Jerusalem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deportees return to Judea; become known as Jews (586 B.C.E.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prophets in this period increase devotion of people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build distinct Jewish community in Judea with strong group identity </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The broader influence of Mesopotamian society, pt II <ul><li>The Phoenicians </li></ul><ul><li>First settlers about 3000 B.C.E.; develop into kingdoms of independent city-states </li></ul><ul><li>Little agriculture; live on trade and communications networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overland trade to Mesopotamia; influence on culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sea trade most important; get raw materials, trade for manufactured goods </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Have early alphabetical script (1500 B.C.E.) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Early Africa <ul><li>Egypt and Nubia: &quot;gifts of the Nile&quot; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Egypt--lower third of Nile River; Nubia--middle third of Nile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After 5000 B.C.E. peoples cultivate gourds and watermelons, domesticate donkeys and cattle (from Sudan), and grow wheat and barley (from Mesopotamia) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculture easy in Egypt (due to Nile flooding) but more work in Nubia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>States begin to emerge by 4000 B.C.E., small kingdoms by 3300 B.C.E. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The unification of Egypt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong Nubian realm, Ta Seti (3400-3200 B.C.E.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Egypt, large and prosperous state by 3100 B.C.E. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Menes at Memphis unites Upper and Lower Egypt </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pharaoh, absolute ruler and owns all land </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Archaic Period (3100-2660 B.C.E.) and Old Kingdom (2660-2160 B.C.E.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Great pyramids of Giza built during this period; Khufu the largest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Violence between Egypt and Nubia (Egypt dominates from 3000-2400 B.C.E.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nubia later develops into Kingdom of Kush </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interaction through diplomacy, Nubian mercenaries, and intermarriage </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Turmoil and empire <ul><li>Period of upheaval after Old Kingdom (2160-2040 B.C.E.) </li></ul><ul><li>Middle Kingdom (2040-1640 B.C.E.) </li></ul><ul><li>Nomadic horsemen, Hyksos, invade Egypt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using bronze weapons and chariots (Egypt does not have) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Captures Memphis in 1674 B.C.E. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes revolts in Upper Egypt </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New Kingdom (1550-1070 B.C.E.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pharaoh gains power, huge army, large bureaucracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building projects: temples, palaces, statues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tuthmosis III (1479-1425 B.C.E.) built empire including Palestine, Syrian, Nubia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Then Egypt falls into a long period of decline </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Egyptians driven out of Nubia in 1100 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nubian Kingdom of Kush; capital is Napata </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>King Kashta conquers Thebes (in Egypt) in 760 B.C.E. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assyrians with iron weapons invade from the north </li></ul><ul><li>After sixth century B.C.E. series of foreign conquests </li></ul>
  11. 11. The formation of complex societies & cultural traditions <ul><li>The emergence of cities and stratified societies </li></ul><ul><li>Cities are not as prominent in Egypt as in Mesopotamia (agricultural villages) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Memphis, head of the delta </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thebes, administrative center of Upper Egypt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heliopolis, center of sun god cult </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tanis, important sea port on Mediterannean </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nubian cities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kerma, dominates trade routes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Napata, most prosperous city after Nubian conquest of Egypt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meroë, most influential city after Assyrian invasion because it is farther south </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social classes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Egypt: peasants and slaves (agriculture), pharaoh, professional military and administrators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nubia: complex and hierarchical society (can tell from tombs) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Patriarchy in both but women have more influence than in Mesopotamia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women act as regents, like female pharaoh Hatshepsut </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nubia: women serve as queens, priestesses, and scribes </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Economic specialization and trade <ul><li>Bronze important but copper and tin rare and expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Iron metallurgy develops independently in Sudan </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation: sailboats, carts, and donkey caravans </li></ul><ul><li>Trade networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Egypt and Nubia: exotic goods from Nubia (ebony, gold, gems, slaves) and pottery, wine, linen, decorative items from Egypt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Egypt and the north: especially wood, like cedar from Lebanon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Egypt with Africa: Punt (east Africa) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Early writing in the Nile valley <ul><li>Hieroglyphics found on monuments and papyrus by 3200 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Hieratic script, everyday writing 2600-600 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Demotic and Coptic scripts adapt Greek writing </li></ul><ul><li>Scribes live very privileged lives </li></ul><ul><li>Nubia adapts Egyptian writing until Meroitic in fifth century B.C.E. (untranslated) </li></ul>
  14. 14. The development of organized religious traditions <ul><li>Principal gods: sun gods Amon and Re </li></ul><ul><li>Brief period of monotheism: Aten </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pharaoh Akhenaten's idea of a new capital at Akhetaten </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orders all other gods' names chiseled out; their names die with him </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mummification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At first only pharaohs are mummified (Old Kingdom) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Later ruling classes and wealthy can afford it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eventually commoners have it too (Middle and New Kingdom) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cult of Osiris </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brother Seth murders Osiris and scatters his body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wife Isis gathers him up and gods restore him to life in underworld </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Becomes associated with Nile, crops, life/death, immortality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Osiris judges the heart of the dead against the feather of truth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nubians combine Egyptian religions with their own </li></ul>
  15. 15. Early India <ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neolithic villages in Indus River valley by 3000 B.C.E. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Earliest remains inaccessible because of silt deposits and rising water table </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also little known because writing not yet translated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Foundations of Harappan society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Indus River </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Runs through north India, with sources at Hindu Kush and the Himalayas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rich deposits but less predictable than the Nile </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wheat and barley were cultivated in Indus valley </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cultivated cotton before 5000 B.C.E. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Complex society of Dravidians, 3000 B.C.E. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No evidence about political system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Harappa and Mohenjo-daro: two main cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each city had a fortified citadel and a large granary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Broad streets, marketplaces, temples, public buildings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Standardized weights, measures, architectural styles, and brick sizes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Harappan society and culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social distinctions, as seen from living styles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious beliefs strongly emphasized fertility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Harappan society declined from 1900 B.C.E. onward </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ecological degradation led to a subsistence crisis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Another possibility: natural catastrophes such as floods or earthquakes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Population began to abandon their cities by about 1700 B.C.E. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Almost entirely collapsed by about 1500 B.C.E. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some Harappan cultural traditions maintained </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. The Indo-European migrations and early Aryan India <ul><li>The Aryans and India </li></ul><ul><li>The early Aryans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depended heavily on a pastoral economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No writing system, but had orally transmitted works called the Vedas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sacred language (Sanskrit) and daily-use language (Prakit) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Vedic Age: 1500-500 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A boisterous period; conflicts with indigenous peoples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Called indigenous people dasas --&quot;enemies&quot; or &quot;subject people&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indra, the Aryans' war god and military hero </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aryan chiefdoms fought ferociously among themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most chiefdoms had leader raja, king </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aryan migrations in India: first Punjab and by 500 B.C.E. in northern Deccan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used iron tools and developed agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lost tribal organizations but established regional kingdoms </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Origins of the caste system <ul><li>Caste and varna </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The meaning of caste : hereditary, unchangeable social classes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Sanskrit word varna, &quot;color,&quot; refers to social classes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social distinctions in the late Vedic Age </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Four main varnas, recognized after 1000 B.C.E.: brahmins (priests), kshatriyas (warriors and aristocrats), vaishyas (cultivators, artisans, and merchants), shudras (landless peasants and serfs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Later the category of the untouchables was added </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Subcaste, or jati </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Represented more elaborate scheme of social classification; developed after the sixth century B.C.E. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jati , or subcastes, were determined by occupations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elaborate rules of jati life: eating, communication, behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In caste system, social mobility difficult but still possible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually a result of group, not individual, effort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign peoples could find a place in society of the castes </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Development of patriarchal society <ul><li>Patriarchal and patrilineal society </li></ul><ul><li>The Lawbook of Manu </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepared by an anonymous sage, first century B.C.E. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dealt with moral behavior and social relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advised men to treat women with honor and respect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subjected women to the control and guidance of men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women's duties: to bear children and maintain the household </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sati, social custom in which widow throws self on funeral pyre </li></ul>
  19. 19. Religion in the Vedic Age <ul><li>Aryan religion </li></ul><ul><li>Aryan gods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>War god, Indra </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gods of the sun, the sky, the moon, fire, health, disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>God Varuna: ethical concern, cosmic order </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ritual sacrifices were more important than ethics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Priests were specialists of the ritual sacrifices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ritual sacrifices for rewards from the divine power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sacrifices, chants, soma </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spirituality underwent a shift after about 800 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thoughtful individuals retreated to forests as hermits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dravidian notions of transmigration and reincarnation were adapted </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. The blending of Aryan and Dravidian values <ul><li>The Upanishads, works of religious teachings (800-400 B.C.E.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The religious forums: dialogues between disciples and sages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brahman: the universal soul </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highest goal: to escape reincarnation and join with Brahman </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Samsara: an individual soul was born many times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Karma: specific incarnations that a soul experienced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moksha : permanent liberation from physical incarnation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Religion and Vedic society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Samsara and karma reinforced caste and social hierarchy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upanishads were also spiritual and intellectual contemplations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taught to observe high ethical standards: discourage greed, envy, vice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respect for all living things, a vegetarian diet </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Early China <ul><li>Early agricultural society and the Xia dynasty </li></ul><ul><li>The Yellow River </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water source at high plateau of Tibet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loess soil carried by the river's water, hence &quot;yellow&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;China's Sorrow&quot;--extensive flooding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loess provided rich soil, soft and easy to work </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Neolithic societies after 5000 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yangshao society, 5000-3000 B.C.E. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excavations at Banpo village: fine pottery, bone tools </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Xia dynasty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Archeological discovery of the Xia is still in its early stages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Established about 2200 B.C.E. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legendary King Yu, the dynasty founder, a hero of flood control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Erlitou: possibly the capital city of the Xia </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. The Shang and Zhou Dynasties <ul><li>The Shang dynasty: 1766-1122 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Arose in the southern and eastern areas of the Xia realm </li></ul><ul><li>Many written records and material remains discovered </li></ul><ul><li>Bronze metallurgy, monopolized by ruling elite </li></ul><ul><li>Horses and chariots traveled with Indo-European migrants to China </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural surpluses supported large troops </li></ul><ul><li>A vast network of walled towns </li></ul><ul><li>The Shang capital moved six times </li></ul><ul><li>Lavish tombs of Shang kings with thousands of objects </li></ul><ul><li>Other states besides Shang, for example, Sanxingdui </li></ul><ul><li>The Zhou dynasty: 1122-256 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Zhou gradually eclipsed Shang </li></ul><ul><li>Mandate of heaven, the right to rule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Zhou needed to justify the overthrow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ruler as &quot;the son of heaven&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mandate of heaven only given to virtuous rulers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Political organization: decentralized administration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used princes and relatives to rule regions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consequence: weak central government and rise of regional powers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Iron metallurgy spread through China in first millennium B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>The fall of the Zhou </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nomadic invasion sacked Zhou capital in 711 B.C.E. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Territorial princes became more independent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Warring States (403-221 B.C.E.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The last king of the Zhou abdicated his position in 256 B.C.E. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Society and family in ancient China <ul><li>The social order </li></ul><ul><li>The ruling elites with their lavish consumption of bronze </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hereditary aristocrats with extensive landholding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administrative and military offices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manuals of etiquette </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Free artisans and craftsmen mostly worked for elites </li></ul><ul><li>Merchants and trade were important </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade networks linked China with west and south </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oar-propelled boats traded with Korea and offshore islands </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peasants, the majority of population </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Landless peasants provided labor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lived in small subterranean houses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women's work: wine making, weaving, silkworm raising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wood, bone, stone tools before iron was spread in the sixth century B.C.E. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Slaves, mostly war prisoners </li></ul>
  24. 24. Family and patriarchy <ul><li>Early dynasties ruled through family and kinship groups </li></ul><ul><li>Veneration of ancestors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Belief in ancestors' presence and their continuing influence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Burial of material goods with the dead </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offering sacrifices at the graves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family heads presided over rites of honoring ancestors' spirits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Patriarchal society evolved out of matrilineal one </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The rise of large states brought focus on men's contribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After the Shang, females devalued </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Early Chinese writing and cultural development <ul><li>The secular cultural tradition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Absence of organized religion and priestly class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed in the impersonal heavenly power-- tian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oracle bones used by fortune-tellers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inscribed question, subjected to heat, read cracks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discovery of the &quot;dragon bones&quot; in 1890s </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early Chinese writing, from pictograph to ideograph </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More than two thousand characters identified on oracle bones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Modern Chinese writing is direct descendant of Shang writing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Thought and literature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Zhou literature--many kinds of books </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Book of Change , a manual of diviners </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Book of History , the history of the Zhou </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Book of Rites , the rules of etiquette and rituals for aristocrats </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Book of Songs, a collection of verses--most notable work </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most Zhou writings have perished </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Ancient China and the larger world <ul><li>Chinese cultivators and nomadic peoples of central Asia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nomadic peoples of the steppe lands--herders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exchange of products between nomads and Chinese farmers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nomads frequently invaded rich agricultural society </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nomads did not imitate Chinese ways </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nomads relied on grains and manufactured goods of the Chinese </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The southern expansion of Chinese society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Yangzi valley; dependable river; two crops of rice per year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The indigenous peoples of southern China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many were assimilated into Chinese agricultural society </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some were pushed to hills and mountains </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some migrated to Taiwan, Vietnam, Thailand </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The state of Chu in the central region of Yanzi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Challenged the Zhou for supremacy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adopted Chinese political and social traditions and writing </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Early societies of Mesoamerica <ul><li>The Olmecs </li></ul><ul><li>Migration to Mesoamerica </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large wave of humans traveled from Siberia to Alaska around 13,000 B.C.E. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By 9500 B.C.E., humans reached the southernmost part of South America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As hunting became difficult, agriculture began (7500 B.C.E.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Early agriculture: beans, squashes, chilis; later, maize became the staple (5000 B.C.E.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agricultural villages appeared after 3000 B.C.E. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No large domesticated animals, no wheeled vehicles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ceremonial centers by the end of the second millennium B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Olmecs, the &quot;rubber people,&quot;lived near the Gulf of Mexico (1200 B.C.E. ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elaborate complexes built </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The colossal human heads--possibly likenesses of rulers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rulers' power shown in construction of huge pyramids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade in jade and obsidian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decline of Olmecs: systematically destroyed ceremonial centers by 400 B.C.E. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Influence of Olmec: maize, ceremonial centers, calendar, human sacrifice, ball game </li></ul>
  28. 28. Heirs of the Olmecs: the Maya <ul><li>The Maya lived in the highlands of Guatemala </li></ul><ul><li>Besides maize, they also cultivated cotton and cacao </li></ul><ul><li>Tikal was the most important Maya political center, 300 to 900 C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Maya warfare: warriors had prestige; captives were slaves or victims </li></ul><ul><li>Chichén Itzá, power by the ninth century; loose empire in Yucatan </li></ul><ul><li>Maya decline began in 800 C.E.; many Mayans deserted their cities </li></ul>
  29. 29. Maya society and religion <ul><li>Maya society was hierarchical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kings, priests, and hereditary nobility at the top </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Merchants were from the ruling class; they served also as ambassadors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional architects and artisans were important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peasants and slaves were majority of population </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Maya calendar had both solar and ritual years interwoven </li></ul><ul><li>Maya writing was ideographic and syllabic; only four books survive </li></ul><ul><li>Religious thought </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Popol Vuh , a Maya creation myth, taught that gods created humans out of maize and water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gods maintained agricultural cycles in exchange for honors and sacrifices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bloodletting rituals honored gods for rains </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Maya ball game: sporting, gambling, and religious significance </li></ul>
  30. 30. Heirs of the Olmecs: Teotihuacan <ul><li>The city of Teotihuacan in the highlands of Mexico </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Colossal pyramids of sun and moon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High point between 400 and 600 C.E.; two hundred thousand inhabitants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paintings and murals reflect the importance of priests </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Teotihuacan society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rulers and priests dominated society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two-thirds of the city inhabitants worked in fields during daytime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Artisans were famous for their obsidian tools and orange pottery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional merchants traded extensively throughout Mesoamerica </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No sign of military organization or conquest </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cultural traditions: ball game, calendar, writing, sacrifices </li></ul><ul><li>Decline of Teotihuacan from about 650 C.E.; was sacked and destroyed mid-eighth century </li></ul>
  31. 31. Early societies of South America <ul><li>Early Andean society and the Chavín cult </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early migration to Peru and Bolivia region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>By 12,000 B.C.E. hunting and gathering peoples reached South America </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>By 8000 B.C.E. they began to experiment with agriculture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Complex societies appeared in central Andean region after 1000 B.C.E. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Andean societies were located in modern-day Peru and Bolivia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early agriculture in South America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Main crops: beans, peanuts, sweet potatoes, cotton </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fishing supplemented agricultural harvests </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>By 1800 B.C.E. the people produced pottery, built temples and pyramids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Chavín Cult, from about 900 to 300 B.C.E. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Complexity of Andean society increases during Chavín </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Devised techniques of producing cotton textiles and fishing nets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discovered gold, silver, and copper metallurgy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cities began to appear shortly after Chavín cult </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Early Andeans did not make use of writing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Early Andean states: Mochica (300-700 C.E.) in northern Peru </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Irrigation, trade, military, no writing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Artistic legacy: painting on pottery, ceramics </li></ul></ul>

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