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Animal Diversity:   Mammals By Violeta Roumenova, Kalin Bojkov, & Martin Damyanov 10/4
Scientific Name   <ul><li>From Late Latin:  mammalis , meaning “of the breast” 6. </li></ul><ul><li>Term in Bulgarian: “ Б...
Fitting into the Big Picture <ul><li>Appeared on the Earth relatively recent, compared to other organisms – 265 MYA </li><...
Tree of Life Mammals http://www.tellapallet.com/tree_of_life.htm
Derived Character <ul><li>Mammary glands:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Producing milk (fats, sugars, proteins, minerals, and vit...
Reproduction <ul><li>Placental mammals- the embryo is connected to the mother’s blood supply by the placenta 16., 17. </li...
Maintaining Control: The Nervous System <ul><li>Most complex nervous system:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central nervous system...
Exchange of Gases and Waste with the Environment <ul><li>Mammals can not live without oxygen, because it is needed for met...
Representative Organisms Bat Giraffe Zebra Hippopotamus   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Hippo_memphis.jpg http://en.wi...
Leopard Panthera pardus   <ul><li>•  Habitat :  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>G rasslands, woodlands and riverside forests </li></...
<ul><li>•  Life cycle changes : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They can mate all year round </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The estrous ...
Koala Phascolarctos cinereus <ul><li>Lives in eucalyptus forests  </li></ul><ul><li>Range: From northern Queensland to sou...
Ring-tailed lemur  ( Lemur catta )   <ul><li>Habitat:  dry woodland districts with a 7-8 month dry season 1. </li></ul><ul...
Madagascar: The Ring-Tailed Lemur’s Sweet Home http://pin.primate.wisc.edu/fs/popup.php?type=map&img=lemur_catta
<ul><li>Weaning:  ~  6 months  </li></ul><ul><li>Childhood – first weeks, young carried in mothers’ mouths or on belly, th...
Other Character istics <ul><li>Grooming claw </li></ul><ul><li>Long tail </li></ul><ul><li>Opposable thumb 11. </li></ul><...
Human Interactions with Other Mammals <ul><li>Humans are actually mammals </li></ul><ul><li>However: various human-mammal ...
Do you know… <ul><li>To which animal group most of the characters in  The Lion King  belong?   </li></ul><ul><li>Mammals ,...
Fun Facts <ul><li>Male lions prefer to rest while females are doing most of the hunting (read this, guys, and then say tha...
Vocabulary <ul><li>O ccipital condyles  –  undersurface facets of the occipital bone in vertebrates </li></ul><ul><li>Syna...
<ul><li>B ronchus  –  is a passage of airway in the respiratory tract that conducts air into the lungs </li></ul><ul><li>A...
Works Cited <ul><li>&quot;File:Ring Tailed Lemur and Twins.jpg -.&quot;  Wikimedia Commons . Uknown, 26 Aug. 2009. Web.30M...
<ul><li>&quot;ANIMAL BYTES - Ring-tailed Lemur.&quot;  SeaWorld/Busch Gardens ANIMALS - HOME . Web. 30 Mar. 2010. <http://...
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Mammals 10 4-roumenova_bojkov_damyanov

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Mammals 10 4-roumenova_bojkov_damyanov

  1. 1. Animal Diversity: Mammals By Violeta Roumenova, Kalin Bojkov, & Martin Damyanov 10/4
  2. 2. Scientific Name <ul><li>From Late Latin: mammalis , meaning “of the breast” 6. </li></ul><ul><li>Term in Bulgarian: “ БОЗАЙНИЦИ ” </li></ul>Symmetry <ul><li>Bilateral => a right & a left side </li></ul>http://www.uic.edu/classes/bios/bios100/labs/bilateral.jpg
  3. 3. Fitting into the Big Picture <ul><li>Appeared on the Earth relatively recent, compared to other organisms – 265 MYA </li></ul><ul><li>Most closely related to Reptiles, because are the two parts in which the group “Amniotic egg” is divided. </li></ul><ul><li>Humans are part of this group; humans are mammals, but the human as we know it nowadays (the first known example is Homo habilis ) appeared 2,5 million years ago. 3. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Tree of Life Mammals http://www.tellapallet.com/tree_of_life.htm
  5. 5. Derived Character <ul><li>Mammary glands: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Producing milk (fats, sugars, proteins, minerals, and vitamins) for nourishing the offspring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary source of nourish for young mammals 15. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hair (contains protein keratin): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insulation/ heat regulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection (in addition to the skin) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Camouflage ( protective coloration =>mammals to blend into their environment ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory function (detects information from senses): e.g. cat’s whiskers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Three middle ear bones: malleus , incus , and stapes : transmit sound vibrations & allow animals to hear </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiated (Heterodont) teeth for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cutting and shearing – incisors ( резци ) & canine teeth ( кучешки зъби ); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>grinding and crushing – premolars ( предкътници ) and molars ( кътници ) 14. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Reproduction <ul><li>Placental mammals- the embryo is connected to the mother’s blood supply by the placenta 16., 17. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-placental mammals- the egg is separated from the mother; feeds on its initial nutrients 18. </li></ul>http://www.ridgenet.net/~do_while/sage/images/v4i12g8.jpg http://www.clarian.org/ADAM/doc/PregnancyCenter/14/000150.htm
  7. 7. Maintaining Control: The Nervous System <ul><li>Most complex nervous system: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central nervous system (CNS) – brain and spinal cord; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peripheral nervous system (PNS) – nerves and ganglia. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nervous tissue cells: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neurons -> carry impulses around the body; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neuroglia (glial cells) -> proper biochemical levels for the neurons 15. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why bother? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sense & responses to stimuli; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generation of thoughts, emotions, forming and storing memories; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PNS: collecting and transporting messages that control the body; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CNS: generating information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neocortex – ONLY in mammals; responsible for sensory perception, generation of motor commands, spatial reasoning, conscious thought , and language 15. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Exchange of Gases and Waste with the Environment <ul><li>Mammals can not live without oxygen, because it is needed for metabolism in their cells. </li></ul><ul><li>In the process of breathing, they inhale oxygen from the air with their lungs, and then exhale carbon dioxide. 15. </li></ul><ul><li>Plants use the exhaled carbon dioxide in order to photosynthesize, and then they release oxygen. That is how an exchange of gases happens between mammals and the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Waste: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Byproducts of digestion, which are discarded by the body. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the environment these byproducts are decomposed by microorganisms and nutrients are released in the soil. These nutrients are needed by plants 15. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Representative Organisms Bat Giraffe Zebra Hippopotamus http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Hippo_memphis.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Two_male_Giraffe_are_necking_in_San_Franzisco_Zoo_4.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Beautiful_Zebra_in_South_Africa.JPG http://farm2.static.flickr.com/1076/603093359_961a75545b_o.jpg
  10. 10. Leopard Panthera pardus <ul><li>• Habitat : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>G rasslands, woodlands and riverside forests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animals have been studied in open savannah habitats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally considered nocturnal animals (e.g. being active during the night) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They can also be diurnal and crepuscular, as rainforest leopards are </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They are exceptionally adaptable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>• Range : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Found mostly in central Africa, can be also found in south Asia (India/ South China). They are missing in North and South America. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>• What they eat? : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They are classified as carnivores. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They are stalkers, they wait hidden somewhere, and then suddenly attack and kill very fast. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most likely to hunt between sunset and sunrise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Their diet includes: ungulate s and monkeys, but also reptiles, bird, and fish. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Africa leopard’s most commonly killed prey are the antelopes, especially impalas 15. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>• Locomotion : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They move quadrupedally, run very fast, and have the ability to climb trees even with a prey in its jaws. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>• Ecological role/ niche : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They must compete with other animals for food and place to live; larger predators like tigers and lions can take their prey or kill its infants; so it is better to hunt in different arias from them, which means it uses different animals as its food. 15. </li></ul></ul>http://williamskz.files.wordpress.com/2008/12/leopard.jpg
  11. 11. <ul><li>• Life cycle changes : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They can mate all year round </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The estrous cycle lasts 46 days and the female usually is in heat for 7 days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gestatio n - 100 days. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The little leopards are in a litter of 2-4, but only 1-2 are able to survive their first year (big infant mortality) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The female will search for a hidden, quiet place, because it needs to take care of the cubs in the beginning. They open their eyes 10 days after they are born, but they stay with their mother from 18-24 months, before leaving them and start hunting and living only by themselves. 15. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>• Other characteristics : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Variant of coloration: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Red/orange in the savannah </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pale cream and yellow brown in the desert </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>golden in the rainforest, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Melanistic (black) in the high mountains. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stealth predators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The only known big cat that can take its pray up to a three, and sometimes 15. </li></ul></ul>http://www.cites.org/gallery/species/mammal/leopard2.html
  12. 12. Koala Phascolarctos cinereus <ul><li>Lives in eucalyptus forests </li></ul><ul><li>Range: From northern Queensland to southern Australia(“Habitat”). </li></ul><ul><li>Feeds mainly on eucalypts leaves 4. </li></ul><ul><li>Locomotion: spend 16 to 18 hours a day motionless. Most of it they spend sleeping; walk by both their hands and legs </li></ul><ul><li>Life cycle: Female koalas reach maturity at age of 2-3 years 7. </li></ul><ul><li>May get irritated when in contact with other creatures & humans 5. </li></ul>http://samsuki.com/sblog/Koala.jpg http://www.stanford.edu/~jay/koalas/Koala450j.jpg
  13. 13. Ring-tailed lemur ( Lemur catta ) <ul><li>Habitat: dry woodland districts with a 7-8 month dry season 1. </li></ul><ul><li>Range: only on southern and southwestern Madagascar , Africa 2. </li></ul><ul><li>What they eat: classified as herbivores: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly leaves (esp. of tamarind tree), fruits (berries), and flowers; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More rarely bird eggs, insects, and small mammals; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dew from leaves –source of water. 10. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Locomotion: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Q uadrupedally on ground as well as on tops of branches ; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tail stand s up for balance . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ecological role/ niche: (SIGNIFICANT) 8. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extensive use of ground; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to adapt to different environments => further than any other lemur species into the interior of Madagascar; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Threatened with extinction because of deforestation, etc. 9. </li></ul></ul>http://tolweb.org/treehouses/?treehouse_id=4730
  14. 14. Madagascar: The Ring-Tailed Lemur’s Sweet Home http://pin.primate.wisc.edu/fs/popup.php?type=map&img=lemur_catta
  15. 15. <ul><li>Weaning: ~ 6 months </li></ul><ul><li>Childhood – first weeks, young carried in mothers’ mouths or on belly, then start riding on mothers’ backs 9. </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual maturity: @ ~ 15 months </li></ul><ul><li>Gestation period: ~ 4.5 months </li></ul><ul><li>Birth to 1 or 2 babies </li></ul><ul><li>Birth season – late summer/early fall </li></ul><ul><li>Life span – up to 27 years (in captivity) 9. </li></ul>Life Cycle Changes http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ring_tailed_lemur_and_twins.jpg
  16. 16. Other Character istics <ul><li>Grooming claw </li></ul><ul><li>Long tail </li></ul><ul><li>Opposable thumb 11. </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoy sunbathing in the morning before feeding: “worshipping the sun” in Lotus position (Yoga  ) 12. </li></ul>http://www.aronsha.com/PhotoDetail-new.cfm?image=GJB00X05-Ring-tailed-Lemer.jpg&cat=wildlife http://tolweb.org/onlinecontributors/app?service=external/ViewImageData&sp=28722
  17. 17. Human Interactions with Other Mammals <ul><li>Humans are actually mammals </li></ul><ul><li>However: various human-mammal interactions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We eat other mammals…but sometimes they eat us </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We obtain food produced from mammals (e.g. milk from cows) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We make clothes of mammals’ fur, etc. 13. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Do you know… <ul><li>To which animal group most of the characters in The Lion King belong? </li></ul><ul><li>Mammals , of course. Simba is a lion; Timon is a meerkat ; Pumbaa is a warthog ; Rafiki is a mandrill…the list is REALLY long! 13. </li></ul>http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_LQCfAsuuYqI/SaNHgx5W98I/AAAAAAAAAMw/UOdbEl6L6QI/s320/TIMON+PUMBA.gif http://top-10-list.org/wp-content/uploads/2009/07/The-Lion-King.jpg
  19. 19. Fun Facts <ul><li>Male lions prefer to rest while females are doing most of the hunting (read this, guys, and then say that a woman’s place is at home!) </li></ul><ul><li>Just like humans, dogs and cats can be either right or left-handed (or should we say ‘pawed’) </li></ul><ul><li>A ring-tailed lemur’s tail is longer than its body 13. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Vocabulary <ul><li>O ccipital condyles – undersurface facets of the occipital bone in vertebrates </li></ul><ul><li>Synapsids – group of amniotes, to which mammals belong </li></ul><ul><li>Monotremes – like all mammals, monotremes have hair and produce milk, but they lack nipples </li></ul><ul><li>Marsupials – Opossums, kangaroos, and koalas </li></ul><ul><li>Placenta – structure in which nutrients diffuse into the embryo from the mother’s blood </li></ul><ul><li>Opposable thumb – a thumb which makes primates different from other animals, they can touch the ventral surface of the tip of all four fingers with the ventral surface of the thumb of the same hand </li></ul><ul><li>N eocortex – brain region that is unique to mammals </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>B ronchus – is a passage of airway in the respiratory tract that conducts air into the lungs </li></ul><ul><li>A lveolus – an anatomical structure that has the form of a hollow cavity in lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Warm-blooded – maintaining a nearly constant body temperature, usually higher than and independent of the environment </li></ul><ul><li>M alleus , incus , and stapes – the three bones that comprise the middle ear of mammals </li></ul><ul><li>Fetus – developing mammal after the embryonic stage and before birth </li></ul><ul><li>Uterus – a female reproductive organ, within which the fetus develops during gestation </li></ul><ul><li>Wean – to stop feeding offspring with mother’s milk </li></ul><ul><li>Gestation – the process of carrying offspring in the womb during pregnancy 6. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Works Cited <ul><li>&quot;File:Ring Tailed Lemur and Twins.jpg -.&quot; Wikimedia Commons . Uknown, 26 Aug. 2009. Web.30Mar.2010.<http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ring_tailed_lemur_and_twins.jpg>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Aronsha Photography -- Photo Detail.&quot; Aronsha Scenic and Nature Stock Photography (35-mm, Digital) . Aronsha. Web. 30 Mar. 2010. <http://www.aronsha.com/PhotoDetail-new.cfm?image=GJB00X05-Ring-tailed-Lemer.jpg&cat=wildlife>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Tree of Life Web Project - Details for Media ID# 28722.&quot; Tree of Life Web Project . Web. 30 Mar. 2010. <http://tolweb.org/onlinecontributors/app?service=external/ViewImageData&sp=28722>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Friends of the Coalas.&quot; Coalas - Facts Diet . Web. 30 Mar. 2010. <http://home.vicnet.net.au/~koalas/factsdiet.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Parks & Wildlife Service - Eucalypt Forests.&quot; Parks & Wildlife Service - Home . Web. 30 Mar. 2010. <http://www.parks.tas.gov.au/index.aspx?base=598>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;MSN Encarta.&quot; Dictionary . Microsoft. Web. 30 Mar. 2010. <http://encarta.msn.com/encnet/features/dictionary/dictionaryhome.aspx>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;PE HTML PUBLIC &quot;-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN&quot; &quot;http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd&quot; Koala: Koala Habitat.&quot; Lycos . Web. 30 Mar. 2010. <http://www.lycos.com/info/koala--koala-habitat.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Ring-tailed Lemur -.&quot; Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia . Web. 30 Mar. 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ring-tailed_Lemur>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Lemur Life Cycle | EHow.com.&quot; EHow | How To Do Just About Everything! | How To Videos & Articles . Web. 30 Mar. 2010. <http://www.ehow.com/facts_5278529_lemur-life-cycle.html>. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>&quot;ANIMAL BYTES - Ring-tailed Lemur.&quot; SeaWorld/Busch Gardens ANIMALS - HOME . Web. 30 Mar. 2010. <http://www.seaworld.org/animal-info/animal-bytes/animalia/eumetazoa/coelomates/deuterostomes/chordata/craniata/mammalia/primates/ring-tailed-lemur.htm>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Ring-tailed Lemur.&quot; Tree of Life Web Project . Web. 30 Mar. 2010. <http://tolweb.org/treehouses/?treehouse_id=4730>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Ring-Tailed Lemur.&quot; Honolulu Zoo Home Page . Web. 30 Mar. 2010. <http://www.honoluluzoo.org/ringtailed_lemur.htm>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Amazing Facts , Animal Facts, Interesting Facts, Trivia.&quot; A Parent's Guide to Internet Safety ::Indianchild.com . Web. 30 Mar. 2010. <http://www.indianchild.com/amazing_facts2.htm>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Teeth.&quot; Texas A&M University Kingsville Users . Web. 30 Mar. 2010. <http://users.tamuk.edu/kfjab02/Biology/Mammalogy/biology_4429_ch_4b.htm>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Biological Diversity 9.&quot; Estrella Mountain Commuity College . Web. 30 Mar. 2010. <http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookDiversity_9.html#Subphylum%20Vertebrata>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Fallopian Tube -.&quot; Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia . Web. 30 Mar. 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fallopian_tube>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Placenta -.&quot; Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia . Web. 30 Mar. 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Placenta>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Reproduction in Mammals.&quot; The Earth Life Web . Web. 30 Mar. 2010. <http://www.earthlife.net/mammals/reproduction.html>. </li></ul>

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