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Eutrophication dimitar pavel_svetla_10_3


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Eutrophication dimitar pavel_svetla_10_3

  1. 1. Eutrophication By Svetla Rasheva, Dimitar Satchansky and Pavel Yordanov 10/3
  2. 2. What is Eutrophication? Eutrophication - a process occurring on places where water flows (slow streams, lakes, estuaries, etc.), naturally or by human activity, become enriched with nutrients and excessive plant growth appear.(1,2) Rapid growth of algae, bacteria and sea weed (1) Competition between species appear for the limited amount of vital sources => less stronger one disappear => specie richness in aquatic life is reduced (1,2)
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  4. 4. Algal Blooms and the ecological effects <ul><li>Algal bloom is a result of the nutrient enrichment in the aquatic system (2,3) </li></ul><ul><li>When the water is enriched by nutrients, it stimulates the bloom of the algae and its population rapidly expands. What sinks from the algae to the bottom of the water source starts decomposing, which becomes a perfect habitat for bacteria. The population of the bacteria increases => it is needing to much O2. (2,3) </li></ul><ul><li>Organisms start lacking O2 and die (2,3) </li></ul><ul><li>Algae Bloom also blocks the sunlight, which leads to stopping the photosynthesis and reducing the temperature of the water source (2,3) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Ecological Effects of Algae Bloom <ul><li>Some of the ecological effects related to the rapid algae bloom are: </li></ul><ul><li>Extinction of important plants serving as food or protection to water species </li></ul><ul><li>Since some of the algae release toxic chemicals, fish and other aquatic </li></ul><ul><li>animals are eventually harmed or killed. </li></ul><ul><li>With the extinction of important species the balance in the ecosystem </li></ul><ul><li>is destroyed (2,3) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Side effects harmful to humans <ul><li>Toxins in water=> Reducing the water supplies for humans(3) </li></ul><ul><li>Blue-green algae is toxic both for humans an animals=> humans may die </li></ul><ul><li>By either drinking the water or eating the diseased fish(3) </li></ul><ul><li>Since fishing is the main job of many people in smaller areas, if the ecosystem (3) </li></ul><ul><li>is affected by eutrophication, local business and economic survival are in danger (3) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Mississippi Dead Zone <ul><li>Covers 5800sq. Miles around the Gulf of Mexico(4) </li></ul><ul><li>Most aggressive appearance during the summer(4) </li></ul><ul><li>Begins at the Mississippi River Delta and goes westward(5) </li></ul><ul><li>One of the largest Dead Zones in the world(5) </li></ul>
  8. 8. What are the Causes? <ul><li>Causes: mainly nutrient enrichments by the Mississippi River, because it transports most of fertilizers of the USA ( Minnesota, Iowa, Illinois, Wisconsin, Missouri, Tennessee, Arkansas, Louisiana)(5) </li></ul><ul><li>Main nutrient enrichments are nitrogen and phosphorus(5) </li></ul><ul><li>Mainly caused by farming practices(5) </li></ul><ul><li>The size can be increased by floods or hurricanes(5) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Effects <ul><li>The excess nitrogen and phosphorus cause rapid growth of phytoplankton( consumes much oxygen) and algal blooms, leading to reduction of the growth of other plants, also marine animals. (4,5) </li></ul><ul><li>When phytoplankton is stimulated by factors such as fertilizers and nutrients to grow, less and less oxygen is left for the system.(4) </li></ul><ul><li>This organic matter sinks to the bottom and makes it even harder for other living organisms to exist.(4) </li></ul><ul><li>Such severe Eutrophication can cause serious threats to both humans and nature(4) </li></ul><ul><li>72% of the USA shrimps are supplied from this Gulf, 66% of all oysters and 16% of fishes. (5) </li></ul><ul><li>Contamination can occur in animals, hence in humans too when they consume them.(5) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Ways of Preventing <ul><li>Use of fewer fertilizers to limit wastes, released in the river(5) </li></ul><ul><li>Control of animal wastes(5) </li></ul><ul><li>The industrial practices, such as releasing of nitrogen or nutrients, responsible for the eutrophication.(5) </li></ul><ul><li>Production of Wetlands along the coast, so the water can be filtered.(5) </li></ul>
  11. 11. How to prevent the occurrence of eutrophication? <ul><li>The methods of preventing regulation can be classified in four major groups: public participation, economic instruments cooperation and technology(6) </li></ul><ul><li>The regulation of usage of agricultural fertilizers and animal waste is essential to the prevention(6) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Managing Eutrophication <ul><li>In order to handle eutrophication nutrient availability should be reduced(8) </li></ul><ul><li>Three main methods: 1-precipitation,2- removal of nutrient-enriched sediments, 3-removal of biomass (8) </li></ul><ul><li>Common examples of these methods are harvesting, removal of terrestrial vegetation and treatment with aluminum or ferrous salts solutions(8) </li></ul>
  13. 13. How to deal with eutrophication? <ul><li>Filtration of pollutants(7) </li></ul><ul><li>Riparian buffer zones are created in order to remove pollutants from the land from entering the water bodies such as rivers lakes for ex.(7) </li></ul><ul><li>The measures taken have proven to be very efficient so far yet not always successful (7) </li></ul><ul><li>Very severe cases of eutrophicaition require drastic measures and the removal of nutrient- enriched sediments is required(8) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Examples <ul><li>Eutrophication is common in the Potomac River(7) </li></ul><ul><li>The color of the water has turned from normal to bright green(7) </li></ul><ul><li>Cause by a large amount of cyanobacteria(7) </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Potomac River
  16. 16. Work Cited <ul><li>1 OpenLearn - The Open University . Web. 08 June 2010. <>. </li></ul><ul><li>2 &quot;Eutrophication in Coastal Environments - Coastal Wiki.&quot;  Main Page - Coastal Wiki . Web. 08 June 2010. <>. </li></ul><ul><li>3 &quot;Algal Blooms in Fresh Water - River, Algea, Freshwater, Effects, Important, Salt, System, Plants, Source, Oxygen, Human.&quot;  Water: Science and Issues . Web. 08 June 2010. <>. </li></ul><ul><li>4 Chohan, Rani. &quot;Mississippi Dead Zone&quot;. Nasa. June 8, 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>5 &quot;The Gulf of Mexico Dead Zone&quot;. Microbial Life. June 8, 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>6 Cloern, James . &quot;Eutrophication - Encyclopedia of Earth&quot;. The Encyclopedia of Earth. June 4, 2010 <> </li></ul><ul><li>7 &quot;Eutrophication.&quot; Dictionaries and Encyclopedias on 'Academic' Web. 08 June 2010. <>. </li></ul><ul><li>8 OpenLearn - The Open University . Web. 15 June 2010. <>. </li></ul>