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  1. 1. Eutrophication biol/biomes/images/mangroves/florida_eutrophication_7536.jpg Menkov, Peter Stamatova, Zhanet Tantcheva, Christina Section 10/1
  2. 2. What is eutrophication? <ul><li>A process whereby water bodies receive excessive amounts of nutrients, which results in excessive plant growth (aka algal bloom) (1) </li></ul><ul><li>Anthropogenic eutrophication – the pollution that humans cause with the release of sewage effluent and fertilizers into natural waters. (2) </li></ul>
  3. 3. What does eutrophication cause? <ul><li>Reduced oxygen concentration (hypoxic water) by the decomposition of dead plant materials (1) </li></ul><ul><li>This can result in the death of other organisms (1) </li></ul>
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  5. 5. Algal Bloom (3) <ul><li>Algal/marine/water bloom =“rapid increase in the population of algae in an aquatic system” –green, yellowish-brown or red </li></ul><ul><li>In fresh water and marine environment </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by excessive nutrients (P and N mainly) </li></ul>
  6. 6. … So what? (3) <ul><li>The more algae grow, the more other organisms die. </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria feed on the dead organic matter. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, bacteria increase in number. </li></ul><ul><li>More oxygen dissolved in water used </li></ul><ul><li>Fish and aquatic insects die </li></ul>
  7. 7. And then…? (3) <ul><li>Neurotoxins </li></ul><ul><li>Biological impact on wildlife </li></ul><ul><li>HABs –Harmful Algal Blooms (toxins produced by phytoplankton) </li></ul><ul><li>Accumulations of foams, scums, and discoloration of the water (4) </li></ul>http ://
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  9. 9. Problems…  (9, 10) <ul><li>Species diversity decreases </li></ul><ul><li>Dominant biota changes </li></ul><ul><li>Competition for resources, predator pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Turbidity increases – less transparency </li></ul><ul><li>Rate of sedimentation increases </li></ul><ul><li>High chemical or physical stress </li></ul><ul><li>Algal blooms </li></ul>http ://
  10. 10. http ://
  11. 11. <ul><li>Water - injurious to health, decline in value </li></ul><ul><li>Disturbance in water flow and navigation </li></ul><ul><li>Commercially important species of fish may disappear </li></ul><ul><li>Problems with drinking water, bad taste or odor after treatment (10) </li></ul><ul><li>B lue baby syndrom e ( methemoglobinemia ) - nitrate levels above 10 mg / l in drinking water , may be life-threatenin g (8) </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>http :// </li></ul>http :// http ://
  13. 13. Prevention (5, 6) <ul><li>R educe the input of nutrients into the water basins (for example, Baltic Sea) </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilization balance </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction in P and N load </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring to predict eutrophication </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrodynamics of the water body – especially information about nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>Precision agriculture – accurate irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>Sewage treatment – removal of nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention of erosion of soil </li></ul><ul><li>Unfertilized buffer zones near water bodies </li></ul>
  14. 14. http ://
  15. 15. How to deal with the effects (5) <ul><li>Algaecides - copper sulphate, chlorine, citrate copper; kill algal and cyanobacterial cells </li></ul><ul><li>Filtration – micro-, ultra-, nano- </li></ul><ul><li>Coagulation-clarification </li></ul><ul><li>Activated carbon adsorption </li></ul><ul><li>Oxidation </li></ul><ul><li>Disinfection with chlorine </li></ul>
  16. 16. Examples of Eutrophication (7) <ul><li>The Baltic Sea </li></ul><ul><li>In the Baltic Sea, all the areas are affected by eutrophication </li></ul><ul><li>Number of phytoplankton increases (especially cyanobacteria) </li></ul><ul><li>This bacterium has increased, because of the increase in nutrient concentrations and due to the changes in the seasonal availability and large nutrient proportions </li></ul><ul><li>Cyanobacteria bloom (Nodularia spumigena) in the western Baltic </li></ul>http ://
  17. 17. The Baltic Sea (6) <ul><li>Since harmful and toxic species are parts of the phytoplankton, the blooms of harmful algae have also increased </li></ul><ul><li>Blooms - caused losses to fish farming, deaths of fish, sea birds, dogs and cattle, and some damage to human health </li></ul><ul><li>Source of eutrophication in this area – increase in phytoplankton, consisting of many harmful bacteria causing damage to the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Impacts include: </li></ul><ul><li>reductions in biodiversity </li></ul><ul><li>reductions in the natural resources of dermersal fish and shellfish </li></ul><ul><li>reduced income from maricultures of fish and shellfish </li></ul><ul><li>reduced recreational value and income from tourism </li></ul><ul><li>increased risk of poisoning of animals including humans by algal toxins </li></ul>
  18. 18. http ://
  19. 19. Solutions (6) <ul><li>The Baltic Sea states and the North Sea states - decided to aim at a 50 % reduction of the N and P load from land compared to the level in the middle of the 1980s. </li></ul><ul><li>It is expected that the directives and especially the recently decided water framework Directive (the urban wastewater treatment directive, 2000/60/EC) will reduce the nutrient loads to the European coastal areas and the eutrophication impacts to an acceptable level. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Mediterranean Sea (7) <ul><li>Mediterranean surface waters in the open sea are classified among the poorest in nutrients (oligotrophic) of the world oceans </li></ul><ul><li>Mediterranean coastal zone - important for human activities like habitation, industry, agriculture, fisheries, military facilities, and tourist resorts </li></ul><ul><li>Most of these activities contribute to coastal eutrophication in the Eastern Mediterranea n </li></ul>http ://
  21. 21. Works Cited <ul><li>&quot;Algal bloom.&quot; Science Daily . N.p., n.d. Web. 5 June 2010. <>. (3) </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Algal Blooms in Fresh Water.&quot; Water Encyclopedia . N.p., n.d. Web. 5 June 2010. < Water.html#ixzz0qB5cw2ci>. (4) </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Eutrophicatio and Health.&quot; European Commission . N.p., n.d. Web. 6 June 2010. <>. (5) </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Eutrophication.&quot; Guide to Water Pollution . N.p., n.d. Web. 6 June 2010. <http://www.water->. (7) </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Eutrophication.&quot; USGS . N.p., n.d. Web. 5 June 2010. <>. (1) </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Eutrophication.&quot; Wikipedia . N.p., n.d. Web. 5 June 2010. <>. (2) </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Eutrophication in Europe’s coastal waters.&quot; ASSETS . N.p., n.d. Web. 6 June 2010. <>. (6) </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;General effects of eutrophication.&quot; Water Treatment and Purification - Lenntech . N.p., n.d. Web. 6 June 2010. < bodies/eutrophication-effects.htm>. (10) </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Problem: Eutrophication .&quot; Wingolog . N.p., n.d. Web. 6 June 2010. <>. (9) </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Why Is Eutrophication Such a Serious Pollution Problem?&quot; IETC . N.p., n.d. Web. 5 June 2010. < short_series/lakereservoirs-3/1.asp>. (8) </li></ul>