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  1. 1. Eutrophication Hristova, Aleksandra Kokinov, Radoslav Apostolov, Lachezar
  2. 2. Eutrophication <ul><li>Process in which t he concentration of chemical nutrients increases </li></ul><ul><li>T he primary productivity increases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>( production of organic compounds from atmospheric carbon dioxide ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>W ater quality are reduced. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce of some a nimal populations . </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in other population s that negatively affects other species . </li></ul><ul><li>Bloom of dead phytoplankton and zooplankton in an area. [2], [1], [5] </li></ul>
  3. 3. Let’s Explain <ul><li>The nitrogen that is exceeded from factories go in the seas </li></ul><ul><li>Cause the rapid growth of algae and cyanobacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Algae die </li></ul><ul><li>Decomposing bacteria eat the dead algae and multiply </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce the oxygen concentration [4] </li></ul>
  4. 4. More about the process
  5. 5. Anthropogenic eutrophication <ul><li>Effects that are result of human activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Anthropogenic eutrophication is a process in which there is increase of chemical nutrients due to human activities.[2], [1] </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Process
  7. 7. What causes anthropogenic eutrophication?
  8. 8. Algal Bloom <ul><li>It limits the sunlight available to the organisms at the bottom </li></ul><ul><li>During the day dissolved oxygen greatly increases and decrease during night caused by the respiring algae. </li></ul><ul><li>The reduced oxygen cause the fish and other marine animals to suffocate and die </li></ul><ul><li>Some bacteria may produce toxins that are deadly for the other animals </li></ul><ul><li>These zones are called dead zones. </li></ul><ul><li>Some pictures of algal bloom [1] </li></ul>
  9. 9. Algal Bloom
  10. 10. Effects on the Ecosystem <ul><li>Decrease of Biodiversity – </li></ul><ul><li>mainly in the water </li></ul><ul><li>Species like fish, etc. die off </li></ul><ul><li>due to the lack of oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>in the water caused by </li></ul><ul><li>algal blooms and increase </li></ul><ul><li>in bacteria consuming the O 2 </li></ul>
  11. 11. Further Effects on Species <ul><li>New species which </li></ul><ul><li>have different living </li></ul><ul><li>requirements may </li></ul><ul><li>invade the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Algal blooms increase </li></ul><ul><li>toxicity which may kill </li></ul><ul><li>many plants and animals </li></ul><ul><li>(Some pictures that show the effect) [4] </li></ul>
  12. 12. Effects on People <ul><li>The toxicity increases after the algal blooms and moves up the food chain affecting people and other living creatures </li></ul><ul><li>Dying of species affect people’s gathering businesses such as fishing, gathering water plants, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Dying off of species such as fish and plants may cause economic problems due to the decreased trade of these products </li></ul><ul><li>(Some pictures that show the effect) [4] </li></ul>
  13. 13. Prevention
  14. 14. Riparian buffer zones <ul><li>In order to avoid eutrophication, the pollution should be intercepted before it reaches water sources. </li></ul><ul><li>Riparian buffer zones – they are built between the pollution source and the water source, and they are basically interfaces where nutrients are deposited in order not to be deposited in water. [3] </li></ul>
  15. 15. Prevention Policy <ul><li>Riparian buffer zones – not effective enough => a law that should regulate the agricultural use of fertilizer and animal waste should be imposed. It should at least make the farmers clean up the waste of their animals, which if it is left alone, will get in the ground water. </li></ul><ul><li>These policies could be divided into four sectors [3] </li></ul>
  16. 16. Sectors <ul><li>Technologies – aim to make people use more common technologies in agriculture, rather than applying new ones. </li></ul><ul><li>Public participation – aim to make people aware that they also participate in this problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Instruments – aim to give incentives for those who protect the water sources from pollution by using clean methods for agriculture. </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperation – Pollution may be because of, or affect several communities => they should cooperate in order to deal with the problem. [3] </li></ul>
  17. 17. Nitrogen testing and modeling <ul><li>Farmers use technique called Soil Nitrogen testing in order to optimize the amount of fertilizer applied to crops. </li></ul><ul><li>It reduces both the wastes and the expenditures. [3] </li></ul>
  18. 18. Measures to deal with the existing problem
  19. 19. Cleanups <ul><li>The most common way to deal with the problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to the cleaning of the school yards, but aim to remove mostly organic pollution. </li></ul><ul><li>Began in the 1970’s in Finland, where a group of activists cleaned up several lakes and rivers from pollution that came from industrial, municipal, and agricultural sources. </li></ul><ul><li>May have a 90% removal efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>However, in some places despite the reduction due to cleanup, the pollution stayed the same => sometimes these efforts are not effective. [3] </li></ul>
  20. 20. Examples <ul><li>Gulf of Finland, northern Baltic Sea </li></ul>
  21. 21. Work cited <ul><li>&quot;Algal bloom&quot;. CienceDaily. 05.06.10 <>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Eutrophication&quot;. CienceDaily. 05.06.10 <• >. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Eutrophication&quot;. Wikipedia. 05.06.10 <• >. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;General effects of eutrophication&quot;. Lenntech Water treatment & purification Holding B.V . 05.06.10 <>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Effects of eutrophication&quot;. 05.06.10 <>. . </li></ul><ul><li>Pictures: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>