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Echinoderm pavel aleksandra

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Echinoderm pavel aleksandra

  1. 1. Echinoderm Hristova, Aleksandra Kounov, Pavel 10/4
  2. 2. Echinoderm <ul><li>Phylum of marine animals </li></ul><ul><li>Known as “Sea stars” </li></ul><ul><li>7000 living species </li></ul><ul><li>Name comes from Greek </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Echin – Spiny </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Derma – skin [3] </li></ul></ul>http://www.graphicmania.net/wp-content/uploads/sea-star-pair-758303-ga.jpg
  3. 3. Symmetry <ul><li>Adults – redial symmetry </li></ul><ul><li>Larvae – bilateral symmetry [2] </li></ul>http://dj003.k12.sd.us/images/32-05-BodySymmetry-L.gif
  4. 4. Anatomy <ul><li>Central disk- have nerve rings and nerve cord on the arms </li></ul><ul><li>Digestive glands- have digestive juices that help storage of nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>Radial canal- fluid containing, form the water vascular system </li></ul><ul><li>Madreporite- where the water flow in or out [1] </li></ul>April 15, 2010 http://www.biog1105-1106.org/labs/deuts/media/echinowatervasc.jpg
  5. 5. Ancestors and Place in the Cladogram <ul><li>Kingdom: Animalia </li></ul><ul><li>Subkingdom: Eumetazoa </li></ul><ul><li>Superphylum: Deuterostomia </li></ul><ul><li>Classes: 6 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crinoidea, Ophiuroidea, Asteroidea, Holothuroidea, Echinoidea, Concentricycloidea </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most close to the Birds </li></ul><ul><li>All classes of Echinoderm came from Crinoidea [3] </li></ul>
  6. 6. Cladograms http://www.geog.ubc.ca/biodiversity/efauna/images/lophotrochozoa.jpg http://image.absoluteastronomy.com/images/encyclopediaimages/n/ne/neoaves_alternative_cladogram.png
  7. 7. Characteristics <ul><li>Water vascular system (Derived) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network of fluid-filled canals- tube foots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gas exchange, feeding, locomotion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Decentralized nervous system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interconnected neurons with no central brain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ganglion- tissue of nerve cells </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Skeleton </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ossicles, calcium carbonate, and several proteins [3] </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Regeneration <ul><li>The process in which damaged or lost body parts re-grow </li></ul><ul><li>Echinoderm may discharge parts when feeling danger </li></ul><ul><li>These parts are quickly regenerated </li></ul><ul><li>Leads to reproduction [2] </li></ul>April 15, 2010 http://fotosa.ru/stock_photo/Animals/p_63747.jpg
  9. 9. Reproduction <ul><li>Sexual </li></ul><ul><li>2-3-year-old </li></ul><ul><li>Egg and sperm are released in the water </li></ul><ul><li>In 3 species (sea cucumbers, sea stars, and brittle stars) – internal fertilization [3] </li></ul><ul><li>Asexual </li></ul><ul><li>Sea stars and Brittle stars </li></ul><ul><li>When a sea star loses an arm, it regenerates the arm and the arm regenerates the rest of the body. [2] </li></ul>
  10. 10. Avoiding Predation <ul><li>Many animals such as sharks and crabs eat echinoderms </li></ul><ul><li>So EVOLUTION </li></ul><ul><li>Toxins delivered by the tube feet </li></ul><ul><li>Discharge of sticky entangling threats </li></ul><ul><li>Painful injuries when touching [3] </li></ul>April 15, 2010
  11. 11. Feeding <ul><li>Different for every species </li></ul><ul><li>Shellfish, sea stars, particles in the water </li></ul><ul><li>Crinoids – when food particles touches the surface the tube feet push them to the mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Sea cucumbers – suck large amount of water and absorb the useful particles </li></ul><ul><li>Sea stars lock their arms around the victim, release gastric juices and digest the animal alive [3] </li></ul>April 15, 2010
  12. 12. Representatives of the Phylum <ul><li>Sea Stars </li></ul><ul><li>Sand Dollars </li></ul><ul><li>Feature Star </li></ul>April 15, 2010 http://irati.pnte.cfnavarra.es/cpsadrw/la_voz_menuda/blogs/media/blogs/ingles/seastar.jpg http://www.animalpictures1.com/data/media/109/Sand_Dollar-2.jpg http:// www.onearth.com/gallery/seafeatuer.jpg
  13. 13. Sea Stars <ul><li>Multiple arms </li></ul><ul><li>Moves when the tube feet extend, grip and release </li></ul><ul><li>Tube feet catch clams and oysters </li></ul><ul><li>Regeneration </li></ul><ul><li>Live everywhere in the oceans [1] </li></ul>April 15, 2010
  14. 14. Sand Dollars <ul><li>Have no arms </li></ul><ul><li>Five rows of tube feet -> motion </li></ul><ul><li>Flat disks </li></ul><ul><li>Catch small organisms with the tube feet that they can swallow whole </li></ul><ul><li>Lives everywhere in the oceans </li></ul><ul><li>Ecological role – cleans the sea floor from food particles [1] </li></ul>April 15, 2010
  15. 15. Feature Star <ul><li>Crawl using flexible arms </li></ul><ul><li>Swallow big amounts of water and eat the useful particles (suspension eating) </li></ul><ul><li>Lives everywhere in the oceans [1] </li></ul>April 15, 2010
  16. 16. Human Interactions <ul><li>May get injuries from a sea urchin </li></ul><ul><li>Sushi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>50 000 kg of sea urchins and sea cucumbers are captured every year in Japan, Peru and France. [3] </li></ul></ul>April 15, 2010 http://i270.photobucket.com/albums/jj96/beaubienb/sushi.jpg
  17. 17. Fun Fact <ul><li>Echinoderms have pigment cells </li></ul><ul><li>Their color is caused by the sun light [3] </li></ul>April 15, 2010 http://www.perfumezilla.com/images_product/lancaster-sun-protection-precious-sun-global-protection-cellular-support-spf-women545313.jpg
  18. 18. Work Cited <ul><li>Campbell, Neil A.  Biology . Boston: Pearson, 2008. Print. [1] </li></ul><ul><li>Wray, Gregory A. &quot;Echinodermata.&quot;  Tree of Life . Duke University, 14 Dec. 1999.       Web. 29 Mar. 2010. <http://tolweb.org/Echinodermata>. [2] </li></ul><ul><li>Wikipedia. &quot;Echinoderm.&quot;  Wikipedia . Wikipedia, n.d. Web. 29 Mar. 2010.        http :// en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Echinoderm [3] . </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>

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